Writing the Methodology Chapter of a Qualitative Study by Philip Adu, Ph.D.



hello everyone my name is Philippa Duke on one of the methodologies personality and Cade and today I will present in information about writing the methodology chapter and in terms of qualitative research so if you are doing qualitative research what is expected of you concerning your chapter 3 how should a chapter 3 loop lie so let's move on to the next one okay so before I talk about you know what you should write in your chapter 3 and this is just a basic information about the difference between the qualitative research and quantitative research right for quantitative research as you all know you are collecting information on making observation to test hypothesis or theory right so you go out you collect your numbers and you use of Solvay on and gather information and use it to test your hypothesis or to your theory for qualitative study you are making observation to develop an understanding or develop a theory to better understand a phenomenon right so you are going in the other to interview participants to maybe quality document to analyze you are collecting worse you are collecting stories to develop theory or develop an explanation or develop theme or things to address your research question right so these are the basic information or the differences between qualitative and quantitative research so when do you have to conduct a qualitative study if you want to explore phenomenal Cades or a situation in the natural environment right then you know qualitative study or qualitative approach will be the best for you it is you want to explore accomplice issue that you know you haven't been able to identify specific variables that you have to measure then you could use a qualitative approach maybe you want to explain a process or a human behavior you can use a qualitative approach want to describe an issue using non numeric car data then you can use qualitative approach you want to understand a situation or you want to call it participants stories to retell those stories in a logical and chronological mana then equal use your volunteer after me so these are you know ways where situations where positive approach will be the best for you so let's move on and talk about you know chapter three you know one when you are thinking of writing legal methodology chapter there are four areas that you have to think about the specific problem that you want to address in this thing why we call it a research problem how do you identify the problem go back to the literature you read a lot and then you identify a gap in the literature that you want to fill you want to use your study to fill that gap right so you first have to identify your research problem then based on the problem you develop the peppers the peppers is all about what exactly you're going to do in the study what action of what goal do you want to achieve in the study right and based on the peppers we develop research questions that is consistent with the purpose of your study to help you gather information to address those questions right and you also have to think about the data what kind of data do you want to call it who are you going to call it the data from lets you know the source of the data right so these are the four areas that you to start thinking about when you want to write your chapter 3 the problem the purpose the research question and the kind of data and how you're going to call it the data what methodology are going to use to follow those information and then and one other thing that you have to think about is what is the purpose of writing chapter 3 shuttle 3 is all about telling your readers or your audience about the decisions and action that you are taking in the study or you have already taken in your study right what action that you are taking what is the rationale why did you take that those actions or decisions and then how the process that implementation this is more of like the procedure how are you going to do things right so one example is what what research approach I did you take a research approach did you choose right maybe you choose a you chose a knowledge panel approach right and then people want to know why did you check that why did you choose for the knowledge can approach so we have to give a registration while you think for the multi approach is the best approach for you to collect rich information to address your research question that you have and then use nephilim logical but it's a Presidium what are the actions that you're going to take how are you going to college your data from participant what are the actions but it's we're not going to take right who I'm going to take information from but so always think about these three things as you try to think about or try to try to write your chapter 3 so there are a lot of components in chapter 3 but because of time you created so the main components right so in Chapter three you are expected to stick to your research question you are expected to describe your research design you are expected to describe your background beliefs and biases I'll talk about that and they respected to talk about the population the participant and sampling strategy that you have to use your aspect people want you to talk about the procedure the data processing which is all about how you're going to analyze your data and also the quality assurance in terms of how I'm gonna show ensure that you know information but you are hiding from participant is the right information and it's going to address your research question that you have intent and I'm not entirely sure that your information or the findings can be transferred from one situation to another situation similar situation right so we're going to also talk about a quality assurance before I continue do you have any question if you have a question contacted in or you can you know on me to yourself and ask and I'll be happy to address it before we start the main presentation okay there's no question and bullhead continue the presentation so your chapter three you start a pathway by giving an overview right of what your chava 3 is going to be about right so first you you know you describe you sit you give a brief information about the problem that you want to address in your study and then a brief information about a purpose of your study and then you tell your readers about what you what do what are going to present in chapter 30 right so that's all about overview and next step is to talk about your research question right what specific questions that you want to address in your stand and then you have to also add a justification we call it rationale right you have to provide an argument supporting the need to address those questions right so you are going to just give a brief information based on your chapter 2 chapter 2 is all about what literature will be based on the relationship view why do you think you need to answer these questions write it consider based on the literature review with there being research done in this and that because of that this is the reason why there is a need for us to address this question right so you are using existing literature to justify the need to address those questions right then and also the type of question you have to also think about this too one example is I have example of how your research question should look like how does meta help stigma influence health seeking behaviors among teens with meta health problems so as we can see here your analytical research question should be open-ended right so your answer will not be it'll be like closed-ended where you can say is there a relationship between two variables or something either way you are able to know yes you are you should be an exploratory in nature you are exploring so you can start with how right you can also start with ha y so the most important thing is that make sure that your research question is open-ended in nature so that you can call it participant story to address those question and I have a lot of presentation on that um the type of research question if you want more information you can email me and I'll be happy to give you that information so the next one after talking about your research question is in the last one the recent design think about it as the risk to your research approach right so you are expected to state specific research approach for your study right so by Terry or Edith what the approach is all about right and then you keep information about why do you think that what is the most appropriate considering the the purpose of your study right and the kind of the kinds of data that you want to call it this making the version the typo here is panels okay so based on the purpose of your study and also the kind of data that you want to call it ended source of the data why do you think maybe phenomenology can approach is the best approach for your study right so this is where you breathe you present a justification as I said chapter three is all about telling your readers what are you going to do and why are you going to do it right and then because we are doing a qualitative study is very important you also talk about specific philosophical paradigm right and philosophical paradigm is all about beliefs held by a group of researchers that informs the way they do research right and I'm going to give you examples of that from a lot of the car paranoid okay concerning the research design we have you know five main research approaches it doesn't mean that you can't have other approaches to countries that approach sometimes today leaving combined two approaches some people can say that I'm doing narrative nomological approach by using finalities the phenomenological approach so you can combine approaches you can also use other approaches apart from these five these are five are there popular approaches the researchers use so as you can see from this diagram if you want to you know capture participant stories right and then analyze them and then we tell those stories then you are going to kind of use a narrative approach right if you want to just capture participants periods so this means I personally I pass through some experience and then you want to capture those experience and then analyze it and then make sense of those experiences it's always more of a phenomenological approach you can use phenomenological approach if you want to develop an explanation or develop a theory or a model to explain a process or human behavior or a situation you can use a planetary approach if you want to study a complex situation well-defined situation by using multiple sources of data then you can use K stain the well defiant kids you know well describe in terms of the location the time and try the test and then you want to better understand what is really going on with that phenomena and by using multiple data more than one forms of data then you have you can use K stay if you want to go to participant environment C observe what we are doing or any activities that has happened in the environment is more of ethnographic approach right go there sometimes you have to believe you participate or somehow you observe what you are doing and when you do record all the information somehow you have to interview them it's all about ethnography right so these are the five approaches so you can use this eye diagram to decide which approach that you once you use for your study as I said can type in your question and I'll be happy to address them so after you have decided okay maybe I want to use phenomenological approach then another thing that we have to think about or describe is the philosophical panel right what paradigm informs the approach that you want to use what is the meaning of those paradigm with respect to the product what is the ontology cast an ontology is all about the state of reality right what is the epidemiology Constance the study of knowledge right what is the as your logic constant steady on value right so first you choose a philosophical a guide right and then you describe what the philosophy patterns and it's all about and then we'll talk about these three stunts ontological and epistemological and geological stands now I'm going to give you brief examples of that so and it's sometimes it's a little of what to graph this information but is very important as a qualitative researcher to do this to present this information to let your audience know about this information your paradigm or your philosophy in terms of how you see things and how you are going to do the research and then you have to present information about how the part I've informed your research approach that you have to use okay so in terms of ontology epistemology and audiology is also called philosopher Karl assumptions right so what is the meaning of intent when you are doing a qualitative study in your own politic half time is that we have multiple realities and that each relative is subjective why are we saying that we have multiple relatives because you go to participant a participant might may have passed through similar situation but the explanation of the situation might be very different based on your background so you're going to get subjective meanings or relatives from each of the participant and sometimes when I get multiple meanings all relatives because they have different background am I making sense here is all about ontology ontology is more about the aesthetic of really for quantitative study relative is seen as we have several rarity where you have single true but for qualitative study you have multiple relatives because they participant how different views of what they are passing through right you can have ten patterns when you pass through the same thing but they give you different explanation or people can pass through the same issue but your reaction might be different because they see things differently that's why you have multiple relatives is subjective because is influenced by individual background and biases and this melodica up stance is all about knowledge how do you arrive at knowledge for qualitative study you closely interact with the participant because you closely interact with them your your background you know you might influence how participant think about issues oh you might influence how you and participant come up with knowledge one example is that let's say you are going to do an interview right and then during an interview the beginner interview introduce yourself to participants right and then because of your introduction to pass is fun okay participant has passed through some issues that you as a researcher has passed through the similar issues because you you gave your background information about this one you just hire probably for you to build trust with the practice one and when you build trust the passes one will be open to give you all the information that you need so you see how your interaction with patents but influence the information that you get from them it's very different from when a researcher find it very difficult to identify him or herself with the participant does hypothesis but that participant will not trust you and because of that the information is gonna collect from participant might not be accurate because all of mine might be limited because they don't trust you as a researcher so you see how your background your experience can influence what information that you are collecting from at all what kind of information that is generated through that interaction you have your participant so in a qualitative study that's why you always have to see yourself as an instrument because you influence that information that comes to you am I making sense I'm hoping I have more confuse with you okay let's talk about the last part as Yali is all about value I think you talked about background and beliefs value always you know in polity to study in need to better understand people experience you have to know the context you have to know their background you have to know their balance you have to know what you believe in so that you be able to understand so their bowels and beliefs or participants and all even your arm you as a researcher influence the actions or your understanding of the issues but we want to study right so in qualitative study you cannot remove beliefs and values of both participants and researchers when you want to understand it by phenomena so these are the basic information you have to know as you are doing the research because if you don't have this basic information qualitative research will be like a quantitative study quantities we study there's a separation between you as a researcher and participants so that your action will not influence battlespire responses one other point is that you give our survey but since I might not even know who you are as a researcher so you have not a clue don't have a close connection with that information participants so there's a separation and that's why sometimes quantitative researchers think about the aesthetic as objective objectivity a must we studied some time they think about us as one subjective in nature because your personal experiences can improvise the information of your quality from patents fun and participant phase my experiences and also implement that information at the present giving you right so let me take a little break here and see whether making sense before I continued so what do you think any question for me if I'm making that you can say you can't type yes for me to know what I am on track or if you have a question I'll be able happy to address them for you okay so if nothing that I can go on maybe I'm doing a great job so that's why I don't have any questions coming ok so the next one that you have to think about is the philosophical a paradigm so there are a lot of philosophically proud of associated with qualitative study but you know for pebbles of this presentation I'm just going to focus on three right so one of the top is transformative paradigm right so transformative patent think about this is this way or those who are we didn't have that research at who have this kind of idea or belief they think that research should be done to help to improve the lives of participants so they think that you have to do research to in what you had to involve participant in the study at the same time you have to after doing the research what you come up with should address the issue on a problem in that participant have you so you are doing researched for participant to address the needs of municipal so we have a reset approach of participatory research where you actively involve participant for the study so if you are using for this virtual research approach then I think that the transformative power will be the best paradigm to consistent with the approach that we want to use right so what is the anthology concern for a person using transformative or attesa women transformation panel so Antarctica as I said is of the lived as I said is all about the study of rarity right so this means that you are actively involving participant in the study in constructing railing right so you are doing research the time is it let's say you are doing action research where you identify the problem that part is 1/2 and we try to involve them to solve the problem as you are collecting your data to better understand what is really going on for a peaceful illogical paradigm of a bit smaller Caston it's all about giving actively involving participant to arrive at the solution right so this means that when you're doing research after collecting the data you have to involve them to analyze the data and then in this way that makes sense to them right and in terms of a zoological stand you have to take into consideration that believes in a balance of participants in order to help in construction they really see how this so you can use the same thing for the social constructivism where as I believe that knowledge is a five base or relative is from basis of individual participant individual people in interaction in a society so this means I knowledge all reality is developed based on the interaction between an individual and the society and then based on an analogous form so with this kind of perception or dillards I don't believe in for the untuk ontology cast on you and participant and develop in reality so you interact with participant develop really one example is doing a phenomenology using a phenomenological approach where you have identified people participant who are past you with certain experience and then you want them to talk about it as you are talking to them you and participant are constructing some rarity here right and this is Norway student of epistemological style where you all construct or create new gravity you interact as you interview them how the conversation you are constructing some reality right and also it's very important for you to take into consideration their beliefs and bowels for you to very really understand what's going on so the last one that I want to talk about this pragmatism so look at pragmatics a person with a pragmatic paradigm thinks that for in for every problem there are multiple solutions right a lot of solutions for a problem so a pragmatist will go and identify all the possible solution assess the strengths and weaknesses of the sole solution take some of the solution that works and use it to address the problem that he identified so the part yes there's a question for you using transformative philosophical paradigm participants are involved in the analysis and design is this involvement if only one participant is consulted about questions or more needed that's the question about transformative philosophical paradigm Oh for that you could focus of it depends on the number of participants that you want to involve them for the panel data collection so this means that if you want to involve about maybe thirty one as you said and then I think it makes sense to focus on about maybe three one head of them or maybe you could identify people who we call a gatekeepers or give it a so we can identify maybe one Ted or maybe about five or six of them who you think have knowledge about a topic that can have a very have a great experience for setting the issue that we want to talk I want to focus on and based on that you can communicate with them to help you to construct the research question or interview questions that you want to use one example is let's say you want to focus on seeing whether there is a specific program that is have been already implemented to help address the problem of the personal problem you can focus on those providers right to find out from them the kind of questions that you should ask participants to better understand where the other program is working or not so you can seek knowledge from them and they'll be able to provide it so we don't have to focus all of them in in terms of construction of interview question is it safe to nurse when you call it after qualitative interview the transcript and then analyzing the data you can identify key members key participants and then helps to help you to you know do the analysis because of time and resources you cannot focus on all of them to help you to involve all of them in the process but you can involve some of them in some areas based on the availability I hope our end another question hopefully that answered the question if not feel free that okay so thank you another question came in when we're talking about these assumptions as you go through if you could touch on what these assumptions look like when doing a case study oh I think about so what happened is that you have to think about it this way I after identifying a case study you have to think about what this case of you all about right case study is identifying a specific well-defined problem right our case and then trying to gather more information not only from one source to better understand what is really going so in this case Hartmut ism will be the best philosophy car hide to inform case study because what will happen is that you have collecting more than one source of data pragmatism also focus on identifying solutions that best help you to understand or address the problem so you are not only focus on one solution that's why I like about what I like about pragmatics so look at the meaning of the philosophical paradigm and also look at the essence of the approach that you have chosen and based on that you be able to identify the consistency and then choose the one that best inform the approach okay so another thing that you have to think about is you know the real one we spend a lot of time here is that we when we review your chapter three was at the time I can see that most of them do they don't present information about philosophical issues and also the researchers background and believes and that's very important for quantitative study for quantitative that you don't have to talk about the abusive background because we have an assumption that you know you are separated from the information that you are stating or the issue that you are studying so there's happy your bias or background doesn't influence or the information of your study so what about your record in quality – because you're an instrument your background information influence the information that you are collecting from participants every decision that you make is influenced by your experience and your background any buyers winner beings so in your chapter three there should be a section called participant background beliefs and biases this is where you describe to your readers what your beliefs are how you became interested the topic what are you experienced you shouldn't talk about a spirit that has nothing to do with your topic right talk about a spirit that has something to do with your tongue that believes your biases is very important for people to know because when you I know your beliefs are biases I'll be I'll be able to understand why you are thinking stepping away while you make that some conclusive why you analyze your data this way why you arrive at this such conclusion there isn't being that you might have researcher a researcher who can do the same thing that we did in your standing but that researcher will arrive at a different kind is why the reason being that the researcher may have different background experiences and beliefs so a qualitative group qualitative researcher always have to describe their lives describe your background for readers to better understand your findings and also to increase credibility right so to know that okay this is your background this is the information let's say you want to find out okay information about the experience of women who have passed through domestic violence right and then you became interested in that topic because you have passed through such situation before you have to let your readers know about it because if because if you let your reader know about the O'Bannon does that why you came into that conclusion why you are asking your participant in certain certain kind of questions and why participant trustee because what is one know that you have passed through the same situation that you are you want to collect information about so see yourself as a liaison between participants and your audience right you have been instructed to go to participants to call it information from death and that information that they are giving you is also in firm by the background beliefs and biases and you receive those information and also you have your background believe the biases that you're going to use to interpret those information and they report that information to your audience but also audience they have the ability biases so you see the situation so as a researcher you have to not only call that participant if stories but you also want to call it but it's bad background information like whether the agenda get situation that we are in right now the location if is possible what did they believe in what are their biases to help to better understand participants right and then you also have to know yourself right and then sometimes have to bracket those biases so that you'll not have much influence on how you interpret your data and you report that information to your audience so as you can see here you collect information about participant relative experiences right and then you also capture the contest and a background of participants so that you better understand what is going on with participant you give you information about their multiple realities or perspective about about an issue then you analyze it and then you present the findings and then you analyze it identify things that represent the data value call it from collected from participant and then address your research question as you're doing that you have to know yourself you have to know your background biases so that you come bracket those who come you know always think about trying to put them in a box or that Rhoda happy and as on do effect from the information that you are analyzing so these are the things you have to think about in terms of the background and biases so you have to be aware of your vows you have to make sure that you all have to make your values or your background known to your audience you have to also get to know your participant also build trust by some time telling them about your background if it's very important it's going to help but this one can open up you have to almost distinguish between your views and the views of participants and you have to pay attention you've got contest and Patterson bad background and believes because that information will help you to better understand the experiences that you are presenting to you so after your talk about your background then you come back to your participants I talk about a population participant is subtly strategy the population can be community that you are going to focus on so you describe the contest you describe the situation there and then you can also talk about specific participant now your focus is going to focus on so and you have to tell your audience or your readers about why those participants are appropriate for your study why do you think I'm going to be able to call it rich information from that right and then you don't have to call it information about yeah you have to talk about the sampling strategy that you have to use right and why you think that strategy is very important in helping you to get the right participants to call it data flow and also have to talk about number of participant and why it is appropriate for your study so concerning the sampling strategy we have been two main ones which is the purposive sampling and convenient sampling that's what a lot of student use but we also have some of the sampling positive sampling strategies that you could use and one of them is intensity something so intensity something is all about your samplings how you sample participant is based on the information that you want from participant right so let's say you are looking at a complex issue and part of the complex which you need maybe a few participant but I'm not a part of the same issue you need a lot of participants so you are allowing how the issues are is to help you to determine the kind of the number of participant on you need you have one example is that let's say you focus on an issue where after interview participant we realized that I think there's some complex information that came up so you can go before the complex problems you can go back to specific participant and see whether you can get more information about that so that you help you to either address the issue that came up so it's called intensity something you are allowing the phenomenon to address your research to address the kind of participant graph to focus on in a normal plant whether you have to focus on a questionable same thing techniques if you could please give a practical example okay so one practical example let's say you want to use a cross if something so the example I gave you the research question that I gave I gave an example that we can go back to that research question so your research question is how does meta health stigma influence help-seeking behaviors among teens with meta health problems so this based on this research question we want to identify teens with meta health problems right so we also have to think about a location may be a specific community so you identify the location and you could look into maybe is there any kind of organization that focus on helping the youth with mental health problem if there's any organization you can contact them and then they will help you to identify things that meet your criteria right so it's a purposive sampling because you are purposefully seeking for participants who meet the purpose of your step right so you look at a participant okay the organization will identify process one who have met I have issue and then based on that you can identify a India except to be part of your setting that you can interview them and then when after interviewing them interview them about their health it can be here but that's because if something convenient sampling is all about okay you are not purposely seeking for them but these on the advil ability right you want to so maybe you are not equal to a community Angelica okay look around and maybe based on you tattoo few people like gate keepers in the community and then they can stick around and help you to identify people who are durable whom I have mental health issues that you might communicate it but so these are some of the examples that I have and I think that the most important thing is to think about what is the best way of getting access to your participants right is it compulsive sampling is it criteria so producers know boring some you know each of the subway strategy has its own strengths and limitations sometimes come from by to something strategy as you can see down here we have random purposive sampling this meter you can possibly can possibly sample participant and then randomly sample them from the sample that you have gotten right so let's say you the organization gave you three hundred participants then you can randomly salad maybe 30 patents one from 300 and to interview them so it's called random purposive sub s orichalcum pi/2 sampling strategies for instant the most important thing is that after so what is the best way of assessing participants and what is the certain best reciprocity that will help you to do that any question okay so that I can go on and talk about the number of possible for your study so for the qualitative study we don't have a method to determine the number of passes for your study so it all depends so there are a lot of factors that you have to take into consideration when you are analyzing all you are looking for the number of passes time for your study one way is to you know the based on approach chosen and some of the test book gives you the range so for example phonological approach some of the test book says that you can have to 225 participant for your study if you are using case study could have even one participant but the most important thing is that you have to get participant that will help you to get rich information to address your research question right so then number sometime doesn't really matter but it is very important for you to have adequate noble participant right based on the recommendation by qualitative researchers sometimes also based on the homogeneity of participant if the participant you are focusing on have diverse background then there's a need for you to get more cuts for your study because when I get diverse issue responses where you need a lot for you to know the kind of information that cut across but it's all that you have so if you have participant whose background are um not diverse which is homogeneous then you need few participant because a higher probability that they're going to tell you similar with responses going to give you a response similar responses and so it's higher probability for you to reach the level of saturation very early in this stage so we don't need a lot of participant for your study but I think that all we think about this access of how many participant do I need for me to really adequately address the problem that I've identified in a steady or I've identified or address the research question right so I think the questioner question around number five if you could give an example for attainability of saturation okay so data okay so saturation is all about richness stage where no new information is being collected right so what it bears on for the same example that I gave about you if you focus on a team with meta health issues and you are talking about you ask them to talk about it here seeking behaviors right so you you are interviewing them and then maybe if you reach about it 15th person and then you realize that they are saying similar things that is other people have already said all you haven't already have already they are confirming what has already been said and then you want to deceased team person and they are saying the same thing then there's the success to you that you have written level of saturation you don't need to continue anymore when you are doing research with limited time and resources like your dissertation saturation is sometimes difficult to attain right because what if you need help a participant to reach saturation as your interviewing process while you are having with the stage where they are repeating themselves so you have to stop so what are you going to do so saturation it shouldn't be your ultimate goal for your dissertation and the most important thing is that are you collected which information to help you to address your research question if you reach that the professional like it goes from that if you reach saturation but to be perfect right but maybe because of time and resources my non-regional or saturation so this is what you can do to reach some level of saturation if you realize that because of you have limited number of participants for your study right what you could do it will spend a lot of time with each participant to adequately address all the interview questions that you have so if you were to have let's say 50 participants for your study you could spend about maybe 15 minutes for each person alternate for each person and then you might read the level of concentration but if you have only 5 participant for your study – in order to reach some level of saturation they need not to spend about maybe 32 maybe an hour just to really get detailed information from them so so you can reach some level of saturation based on the availability of participants and then based on availability you can decide whether you have to spend a lot of time with each button found on any other question okay so like I move on to the next one okay when it comes to procedure you are just giving a step by step process of quality media so step by step process in terms of describing where and how you work for letting you collect the data right in terms of the kind of data quality and who did ecology data form and how long from each person that holiday the data from and specific action but you too in the data collection process dd-do observation did you spend a lot of time with participant how long do you spend time what kind of questions do you ask them what bit participant doing a study and so you are keeping step by step homology card process so that when you are you give that information to presidio to somebody the person can do the same thing that you did right that's all about Presidium step-by-step detailed information about the data collection process after you looted participant what happened maybe after conclude meant you gave them instantly informed consent you read in from concept to them you allow them to ask question about any form of sale and then you allow them to sign and then you move on to collect demographic information the agenda the income and the other information personal information that will help you to better understand what is going on with pasta after that you went to the name interview ask them about 10 main questions and then you can do after about follow-up questions too and then on average you spend about 30 minutes or Pattison each participant after the interview you ask participate under participant and then you ask them whether they will be available for follow-up interview just in case that's happening and then you finish the collected data it transcribed this is what people want from you this is what videos one from you one step by step what did you do what it what is one do right procedure so as I say we have procedure at this is where you also talk about the data collection strategy that you want to use right so there's a difference between research approach and the data collection strategy the research approach is this what the water I talked about the five approaches the collection strategies are the ways that you are going to call it the data don't do observation can do participant observation from the document collection do in that interview or focus groups these are the data collection strategy for you for your study you can choose one of them or you can choose more than one then the characteristics can be audio tests and this wall depending on the kind of information that you want to college one of them is a question feminine No okay perfect so the next one is Delta processing this is where you describe how you're going to analyze your busines right it's a qualitative study so the contest is very very important about my informational process of practice but is very important so you have to talk about how you're going to analyze the demographic information all present participant characteristics the next one is to talk about the main data of equality from participants right what I wanna do with it so concerning the data analysis process we call it coding right coding is just assign labels to significant information that we receive from participant so that'll be able to develop team to address your research question on behalf so we always have to start with the coding process you start holding assignment levels and after code you have to support them right group them into categories based on the similarities right based on that you cannot go further and develop themes that will help you to address your research screen sometimes you can develop theory especially when you are doing a grand jury where you want to develop a theory to better understand a phenomenon that your focus on all right so I have a presentation on data analysis if you want more information about that you can email me and I'll be able to send you know the PowerPoint and the video to and next one is the quality assurance today I'm going to just talk about three basic information about volunteer shows in terms of qualitative study so the first one is the credibility right because it's a subjective process when it comes to qualitative study you have to make sure that you your information is credible how I'm going to do that you can quickly present how you analyze a qualitative data from participant how you derive friend and from the data that you have and how and when you are presenting your file is bring contest to it and also another way is to call it more than one source of data like you can use interview and focus group at the same time or you really know trying to increase the credibility or trustworthiness of your information the next one is to transform a transfer ability this is where you describe the contents in such a way that readers will be able to own future researchers can be able to transfer your information on your findings to similar contests because you are able to describe the content in the d2 way research can you will be able to transfer that information so making your study transferable means that describing the contest in a very detailed manner and the last one dependability is where you access um whether the finest it's dependable in terms of you clearly present step-by-step information right about how you quality data and analyze your data if you do that you know it's very important for research official researchers to do the same thing that we did repeat the same thing of you did and get a similar result and also you describe the paradigm that informs you study and also your background information and your role in estate I think that also will help a lot for to ensure quality of your findings so I think I'm taking all the time so do you have any questions if you have some question are we up to address them and we can call it a game any question okay so if there's no question then we can call somebody's talking to push yeah I think the our question coupon is like they're coming in coop I do wanna help us with their questions oh oh okay the first one is when I collected data asked I guess I asked the decent amount of demographic information including gender age education profession income home language ethnicity and what languages they speak and read fluently however I did not ask no biases should I try to go back and ask that specifically or try to extrapolate possible biases from the interview yeah you can't do that from the interview I think that you know sometimes you ask yourself you know they have a lot of information that you can collect from participants but answer so which background information will best help you to understand the main interview responses right so if you think that what we have will help you to understand you don't have to go back to participants you ask them about you there are biases you could know use the information that we are giving you to better understand how they responded to your question that you have so I don't have to go back to the but I think that you can also release you try to know more about them finally you can find other ways of getting more information but acting is not important you don't have to seek for that information but I think that what is important is most of the time the demographic information any information that describe who they are that will help you to better understand how they respond to their questions you could you could color those information and then I think this next question is moot based on what you said but if if I do go back to I guess ask questions about biases does this require modification to the IRB yeah yeah if you indicated in the Arab application that you're going to do a follow-up interview then you don't need to go back to IRB to ask for permission if you think that biases are not important to know to help you to better understand the main responses you don't have to go back and ask them about the bias so it's all about a really part of the background information so that's why even I was talking about even when you are presenting your own bio information ask yourself is that important if that's relevant to the topic you don't want to give a background information your childhood s period that have nothing to do with your topic right and then there's another question what happens when conducting your study it does not happen the way you plan dot ie focus group was only supposed to be eight but ended up as 18 that's another thing that you always have to plan for that on bonus packet so in terms of when you are doing an IRB application if you know that you're going to get about about 20 passes for your study you can tell IRB that you want to focus on third parties in case a lot you always have to do what are being taught Arab leaders going to do so when you tell them that the focus group will be most of them at most eight and now you get 18 five ways of immaculate eight right by you know taking such a randomly selecting some of them each participant to participate in your study and then but other questions were about you know requesting copies of the PowerPoint so I just typed into the chat box that you can email dr. I do at P a due at the Chicago School ddu that's padu and if you want to view the actual presentation what-what was reviewed today you can click on that link and bookmark the MKT YouTube channel or just search YouTube for n Kade that's n CA de and you'll find the channel it's the first one that shows up thank you any question okay if there's no question that I just want to thank you for your time and if you have a like any other personal questions for signing your study you can email us we'll be happy to address that point so thank you all for your time and thank you that a glassy for the help immunity question my pleasure thank you for the very informative presentation thank you bye

38 thoughts on “Writing the Methodology Chapter of a Qualitative Study by Philip Adu, Ph.D.

  1. Thank you so much for sharing this. This is the most helpful video i have seen on YouTube. So well explained, I like the patience you gave in explaining and didnt rush through it. Thank you!

  2. bro thank u so effin much this really the best presentation to be found on the web..i dnt know why it wasnt the first of suggestions …i watched too many videos and ddnt understand a thing, but this one is so calm and clear thank you for your effort and time <3

  3. Just finished listening and understanding your entire lecture, I really have to say it makes understanding so much easier, especially for people who do not have a formal qualitative study background. Thank you so very much Dr. Adu, and I look forward to learning from all of your other related lecture videos soon!

  4. Thanks once again, it will also be more useful, if a link to a published qualitative study that reported the presented methodologies was shared. This is to see how it is practically reported in the published articles.

  5. Sincerely, this is the best YouTube presentation I ever had on qualitative research. This is very informative, easy to learn for a beginner. It has really assisted me to better understand the qualitative study. Thank you so much, Phil Adu.

  6. Thank you so much for this wonderful presentation. This was very informative and really helped me to understand better. Once again thank you.

  7. hello I am enjoying this presentation very much. Here is my question. Is it possible or should I say sensible to use a phenomenological- narrative approach from a functionalistic perspective?

  8. It's hard for me to differentiate between purposive and criterion sampling based on the explanation in the video. I've noticed that sources that mention purposive sampling don't mention criterion sampling (and vice versa). Could you explain the difference and where I can find a good source for distinguishing between the two? For example, in my study I specifically am seeking students who are neither high nor low achievers and are from a middle class background. I explain my rationale for doing this and use sources where appropriate, but I need to know the appropriate classification. Thanks!

  9. Thank for sharing this lecture.While I understand how to structure the chapter, I can't seem to find a source to refer to when defining how I chose my paradigm, what is the most relavant source of your lesson?

  10. This presentation helped me astronomically in writing my thesis. It was very informative, easy to follow and thought provoking. Thank you so much!

  11. Wish the audio was a little better however very informative presentation and thoughts from the person behind the video 🙂

  12. NCDE, thank you very much for the presentations. Am about to start data analysis. I find the video on Coding and Categorizing Data by Philip Adu, Ph.D very enlightening

  13. This is very useful. I would be really grateful if the three stances could be clarified for me and it would also help if I could be advised whether I am correct to think that all studies contain all three of these stances. We know some reality. We then delve in to literature to study knowledge and based on our values and beliefs we identify our gaps and conduct our study.

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