Writing a journal paper



hi my name is shady attea I am an assistant professor of sustainable architecture and building technology at leas University in Belgium I'm going to present today a presentation on how to write a journal paper well already there is a series of videos that I prepared before I advise you to have a look and watch these videos because they are a kind of foundation for today's presentation looking at how to select a journal for publication citation and biography literature review how to select a topic and make a research ideas assessment and how to submit a paper and the process of journal publication submission so all these topics were before I advise you to watch them and in the same time if you're interested I'll invite you advise you to subscribe for my channel well the audience of this presentation is early career researchers who are looking to publish a journal for the first time and I am looking today to talk about three topics it's the content it is the structure and it is the form so these are the three topics that groups my presentation well first of all the content well familiarize yourself with the journal publication you need to be familiar what is a journal publication as I told before watch TV news include recent and relevant and key publication of the journal in the literature review so where the journal you are publishing in make sure that you already cited the key publications related to your topic from the same journal this is very important avoid that the paper focus is not directly related to the scope once your focus is out of the scope of the journal the chance you get rejected it's very high otherwise the paper would be more appropriate for another journal so be wise from the beginning take the time to make sure that this topic this paper is matching the scope of the journal okay use top-down approach deductive approaches in writing for an expert many people when they start to they are assuming that they are talking to non experts actually that's not true when you are writing on a journal paper level you are talking to experts so try to be brief try to avoid to be don't be verbose try to avoid this long introduction to come to the problem we all know about climate change we all know about energy efficiency try to be focused just enter directly in the aim of your work and its contribution what do you want to do what findings do you have what correlation did you find or what kind of discovery you have for us so please do that and talk in an expert language most importantly give a novela declaim you need to show in the introduction what is novel in this work in the abstract also in the introduction and compare explicitly your result with earlier results she'll say what has improved what gap did you cover what kind of findings or added value laughs so these are some essential things to starters now the publication contact your content you need to have the abstract of the ins of the introduction or the last things to write so I advise you to write the abstract and the introduction at the end of the manuscript make sure the introduction is exciting well when you can do that when you first finish the results sections and the discussion you ghost write your introduction abstract and when you write them you write them in an exciting way introduction needs to trigger the reader and show him or her that this is a high-quality work it's different its unique it's coming with something new and you have to cover different aspects related to the topic from the problem to the objective and aims to the significance importance added value the methodology the results and so on and so start with your conclusion then write the introduction so that the introduction is in line with the conclusion the introduction could be the most important content to encourage reviewers to read further and potentially accept people and believe me or not when reviewers are under pressure they will read only the introduction and based on it they will decide whether to go continue further or to stop so take it cease well highlight the added value in significance of your research in the discussion or conclusion you have to reiterate don't say one thing one time if you talk about innovation or significance in the introduction you have to say it again in the discussion and you must also in the discussion mention the limitations of your work discuss study finding and strands and study implication and implementation in the future work this is my advice in the discussion section so you talk about findings you talk about the implications of your work and the strengths of it and then you can go talk about future work those are three nice ways to structure your discussion well how it looks something like that that's a journal publication as you can see and in the same time it is entitled a guide to writing articles and energy signs I advise you to download this paper and read it it's very useful it's very insightful so this could be a start to read about how to write a paper and in the same time reading a journal paper well I am done with the first part talking now about the four well the form you are familiar I guess with this form of journals this is the journal after being produced okay but in reality you don't submit your publication like that you just submitted in the form of a word file so it's a simple word file or a latex format file and the publisher will create the layout and produce this publication based on this manuscript so don't get confused now what should I do to start with I need to have a word file I open my word file first thing to do double or one on 1.5 spacing why spacing to allow reviewers to correct and to have space between lines number two to do use font number twelve I advise you to use area and start numbering all pages number or the lines and do not exceed the maximum word words for the journal so make sure if you are requested to not exceed eight thousand words then you are respecting the 8,000 or if it's ten thousand then it's ten thousand in average a journal will take between 10,000 to 12,000 words in average but it is up to you to read the author's instructions for every journal and meet these requirements this is how it looks when I start writing a paper on my word file it is a double spaced or a 1 1/2 space as you can see on the left side here there is numbering of the lines never ever forget to number your page so page numbering is definitely important you are looking at figures I highlight the figures in green so that they are visible all the figure citations are in green and all references I am citing them in yellow so that I can detect easily where are the references where are the figures and tables now important thing regarding the form this is how it looks when you write a text you should make sure that you have topic sentences you open with the topic sentence the topic then you start with in them indentation you have to indent the topic let's have a look do not use very short or very long paragraphs do not use very long complex sentences there is a tendency of people to write long sentences chop your sentences be precise go step by step say one idea in one sentences the funny thing is that when new younger assertions they start writing they want to show that they are intellectual they want to show that they can go manage complex things so they keep writing long sentences with three or four different arguments this is not good keep it simple you want to say many ideas chop them and write them in a sequence and make sure there is no complexity neither on the level of the paragraph neither on the of the sentence and check the syntax well start a private paragraph with a topic sentence or some other indication of the subject the opening of any paragraph should be a topic statement argument and then you go into detail by showing some example examples or supporting this main argument with sub arguments divided long text section into smaller parts with headings and look that there is a followup between these different paragraphs at the end of the day and that the headings are enforcing the structure and the line of thoughts and ideas that you want to the reader to follow okay what I have to do when I'm starting to write when you have a list of items use bullets I always advise you to use bullets highlight references in yellow and figures in tables in green I just showed you that any term symbol or abbreviation you can put in the table of abbreviation I will show you later on how it looks so these are important things related to the editing of your manuscript and here as you can see this is a text I decided to here is the indentation I indent you indent always the beginning of the first paragraph you don't indent but the following paragraph you in them so here I have indented indentation then I have bullets bullets bullets and then I indent again for my text this makes the text more from an organization point of view accessible readable easier to understand and to follow double lining page numbering line numbering okay so what else I have to look at on the forum level I have to save all my files most probably JPEG GPG or in the format of TI F 300 dpi resolution make sure because you will prepare a folder of different files you will have a cover letter detailed responses figure captions highlights manuscripts if you have a revised manuscripts reviewer comments tables and captions all these files it's a back put them in one folder and for every version of the paper you have a folder that groups all these files save the figures as I said gif or JPEG save each figure independently in a in a separate file cite each figure in the text and the figure caption should be placed on top of the figure so I will tell you some basic terminology I have a figure figure citation means that I mentioned the figure in the text this is called citing the figure in the text so the figure is cited number two any figure has something called a caption a caption I can see figure number five it has caption under the figure however tables we put the caption above the table so this is a bit confusing but just keep it into account when I have a figure I put a caption under the figure when I have a table I put the caption above the table for figures and tables I must cite them in the body of the text please don't forget that it's very important tables always are written in capita the first letter of table is always Capitol table T capital T figures the F is always in in capital so you see table capital T figure capital F capital F and you can see that the text here is citing this figure and this figure has a caption under it so this is very important to keep into account the same happens with tables you need to cite the table in the text and the table needs to have a caption very important okay so this is how it looks and at the end I group all the tables in one files tables are grouped in one files figures are grouped independently in separate files and as you can see Figure one is cited here and is cited here okay finger caption is in a separate file so I only do the following i side the figure here and then I cited in the place I want to put it in the text so now I'm talking out of a specific figure so I cited in the body in the text then I want to tell that the figure should be in this place of the text so I mention it again so here where the figure should be placed why because I don't copy paste or insert the figure in my main manuscript actually what I do I just side the figure in the body I mentioned the location where it should be placed and the production officer or manager he or she will place it in the final production all I need to do is to provide the figure in a separate file and group all the captions together in one file so this is how it looks with figures with tables it's much simpler I will cite the table I will mention the table and then I will have the tables all with caption in one file so this is my advice to you and if somebody asked me how does it look a figure captions file this is how it looks I can see here figure 1 2 3 4 5 6 they are having the caption okay they are cited here they are mentioned here and the file is separately so the figure is it has 3 thing the separate file it must be cited in the text once in the body of text and once for the location of the figure and it must have a caption grouped with other figures so this is simply how we do it with the caption of figures ok tables you have to save all the tables with all captions in one file it's called tables with caption cite each table in the text table caption should be placed on the top of the table and tables should start with capital letter as I mentioned now I'm moving to the structure of your paper you are going to go into a hierarchical process for your publication so first thing to do look at how you will create sections for your publication scientifically we don't need to invert to invent the wheel we have the embed method or the inbred hierarchy which is simply a hierarchical way to clarify clarify the structure I have here a checklist if you want to check it on my website you can download it for free and it's very useful to help you structure your journal publication but in general we are looking at an introduction a literature review and methodology results discussion conclusion acknowledgement and references that's it that's a classical paper journal structure and as you can see in any publication before I can read it I will find always on the left side the article outline in this case highlights abstract abbreviation keywords introduction state-of-the-art methodology results discussion conclusion unsighted references acknowledgement and references so this is the structure for a classical paper well in some cases some authors they prefer to make something called parallel description descriptive structure which means that they come up and they change the titles and I make paper specific titles respecting the in red as you can see here they also decided to have introduction instead of saying literature review they said past research very good very acceptable it gives the same meaning here instead of saying results they say new design for adaptive facades which is intelligent also he isn't trying not to make it boring and finally sorry maybe the new design this is the methodology most probably and here he says result for the new design and finally conclusion and recommendation so you can see here that this is called parallel descriptive while this approach is called nonparallel a non descriptive approach for structuring your paper whether you take that or that I advise you in the beginning take a classical approach to not confuse the reviewer it's already difficult for you to write properly it's writing is a skill it takes time so keep it simple but unless you are interested to do that and you are certain about your writing skills it's okay well first to do a title make the title short specific not too general brief clear descriptive less than 10 words emphasize nobility so these are examples you can start with triggering words simulation of assessing off comparison of developing off and was this you make your title moving in the active sense showing action and then you use keywords that shows the interesting or new contribution or added line after the title at most four or five names are recommended for authors look for authors now this is an example for a paper it has only two authors here this was a collaboration with between a master student she was the first author I was the second officer keep in mind that it's not logic to have more than five authors already three is fine include those who had scientific contribution in order the order of names reflect the significance of the contribution the first name is the most contributor and then it goes further and further in some other institution where I am working in layers the first author is the biggest contributor and the last author is the reviewer or let's say sorry not reviewer the team leader the supervisor the coach the the main investigator of a project so when I publish with anybody and I am NOT the main contributor I always put myself at the end as leader or supervisor of provocation and when I am leading the publication and I am the main contributor myself in the beginning and then I cite other colleagues or authors co-authors following me but in general the basic rule says that the order of the name of authors shows the contribution the level of completed contribution okay after authors those who acquired funding should be mentioned in the acknowledgement sometimes and people who are just cutting the man got the money but they didn't contribute you have to acknowledge them in the in the phone in the acknowledgement give the name and address of your employer you should always put the name of your institution you can see here the name of the oh I'm saying we have here three authors we mentioned their name first name family name all of them then the first author is the corresponding author and then we put affiliation where they are working we don't put their position no you put the affiliation so in this case for example the Norwegian University of Science of Technology department of civil and transport engineering Trondheim Norway in my case it is the sustainable buildings design lab Department Jenko Faculty of Applied Sciences University of liège Belgium that's all what you have to do so you put the author names and affiliation and I author can have several affiliation if you are working and we are a visiting scholar in a place you can put the affiliation of your host institution institution and from the host institution well after authors are decided we have to write an abstract don't make it exceed 250 words don't make it long it should cover the problem aims methodology some expected results and odious and impact so it is very brief and it's interesting to open the topic for readers and make them go and decide to download or to buy your publication for reading these are examples of abstract that are written most of the time in the medical world and they have very good precise ways of writing abstracts you can see background methods findings interpretations I prefer you write all that in one but cover these topics still in the same abstract keywords are following next you will need to have six to eight keywords those keywords should not be matching any words that was in the title so those are complementary additional words to increase the search engine chances to find your work and they have to be in the context of the problem and the most common words that represent your research that are not mentioned in the title I am repeating again keywords you should not use any keyword that is already mentioned in the title okay looking at that an example dynamic building kit for adaptable and we use reusable wall solutions I can say design solutions I can say post-war housing I can specify the city I'm working on energy efficiency renovation so this is an example how to come up with keywords most of the time six to eight that are complementary with the title well after that you will need something called highlights what are highlights highlights are short collection of bullet points that convey the core findings highlights provide readers with quick textual overview of the article they must be involved format and three to five bullets points maximum and make sure you are not exceeding 85 characters per highlight so you see the highlights here very short a systematic approach to proper selection of best retro food option is proposed the generic building retrofit problem is presented key issues involved in the building retrofit investment decisions are discussed we review the previous studies on existing building retrofit so we are giving brief messages very short 85 character maximum five of those maximum highlights to represent the paper and make it more accessible so now the reader is going to read highlights keywords title abstract he or she can say yes I want to read further download this paper or no I'm not interested recently many journals ask for something called the graphical abstract and this is not my representation I forgot from where I found it so I apologize for that but this is was a paper published and the author's they represented the paper in one graphic and today next to the highlights many journal ask you to have something called graphical abstract it's a visualization it's one scheme it's a sort of infographic that you develop that represents in a way or another your whole work in a visual way and it's very useful because people who are visual they can also facilitate the accessibility to talk document so all this work is simply to facilitate the accessibility to your brain ok I am done with the title keywords abstract abbreviations going next now to abbreviations abbreviation simply should be a list you put it in the beginning of your text directly after the highlights and they are summary of the keywords that you have or the nomenclature if you are using equations and these equations have some constants or some abbreviations or some figures or some letters that represent some specific meaning related to these equations we do something called the nomenclature or we call it abbreviation abbreviation is more of the time when it's abbreviation for words so if I say ISO international standardization organization so I say ISO I mention it in the abbreviation and then across the text I am not needing to write every time the International Organization of standardization I just mentioned aisel so this is why we do abbreviations now the question is the nomenclature the nomenclature is very similar to abbreviation when I have a lot of equation and indexes I had a recent study about financial indicators and we had the inflation rate the depreciation value and different other economical values and every time we were using these short terms or letters for them it was not logic every time to use the same word so we come in the nomenclature and we put all the abbreviations and not only that we focus on the equations and the assumptions for any constant so this is the role of abbreviation and normal teacher you have to include it in the beginning before the introduction please after that you can start your introduction in the introduction you need to discuss the background information the aims and objectives of your work the significance of your work the methodology and results of your work and you have to discuss who is the audience of your world and who what is the organization of the work these are all structured in a way to make sure that you are writing properly an introduction background what is the problem what's happening then you tell me what is the aim of the world what is the objective of this world what is the importance the added value the innovation the significance what is the expected impact what are the results or at least highlights of the results what was your methodology who is benefiting from this work and finally how can I read this work and how is it structured so this should be the structure of the introduction additionally in the introduction it should meet an answer all the requirements of the quad chart and if you don't know what is a quad chart I advise you to watch the video called research ideas assessment so make sure that your introduction is embedding in the text all the topics and themes or ideas that were discussed in the quad chart previously well this is how it goes now we move from the introduction to the literature review there is a video called literature review analysis it is the time here in this paper to put your tables that you created previously and to start to talk about them you have to present a background scientific background extended definition of your I need definitions here I need to know what terminologies are we talking here to make this work articulated and framed then I need you to tell me what is the literature what is the classification comparison with other publication you have to group this work you have to make some subtitles grouping the mine publications under categories so that I can understand what are you talking about and your work originality should be connected to the literature review so actually the literature review should be simply saying we grouped we reviewed the literature we saw this kind of publications and we figure out that there is a gap here was something missing here and our work is coming here to address this gap or to bridge and therefore we relate our work to the review and identify the innovation of our work even if it was said before in the introduction you say it again and you show the importance and originality of your work in the context of the literature review so it's very common people here say what is the gap what is the problem what they could not find in the literature even though they reviewed it and that this paper will come up to bridge this gap next methodology done with the literature review you can say here what are some goals of message section present your experimental design provide enough detail to allow reader to interpret your results give enough details for the readers how they can replicate the work because the master dollars should be written in a way that it's replicable you are a scientist the productivity of your work is one of the kinetic quality criteria so the key of success of method section is to include the right information of of detail not too much and to begin to sound like a laboratory not too much to be like a laboratory manual it's not like you are giving me I broke up at nine o'clock I did that it's not it's not a protocol it's not a procedural thing it is more kind of concise way to write what did you do and the key step and milestones you took methodologically so it's very important to keep into account don't go into detail and don't be very generally include the right amount of detail again methodology you have to put here definitions if you have any specific definition your research design how you made the design of your research how did you do your work did you use qualitative or quantitative methodology describe how did you do it you need to address the robustness of your methodology is this methodology robust or not is it based on protocol on a standard did you have a validation of the methodology did anybody external validate this methodology and what are the limitations of this methodology according to Paradise and Zimmerman the experimental or method section for an article they describe describes the tools and processes that enabled you to meet the stated objectives of the introduction so it's very important to correspond to this description this section will be read for at least two major reasons first reason reader will judge how skillfully you have designed the empirical process of the problem solving how you went methodologically second the reader of might test your methodology against your results so they will read it again to check okay does this result correspond to this methodology does it make sense how did he get this result he didn't mention any methodology anything about the the expectation for this result so it's very important to have here clarity accuracy to make sure that the methodology really makes sense and can lead to the results that you're reporting at the end of your work well what are some pitfalls for methods providing too little information or too much information reiterating published methods rather than citing them writing strictly in chronological order may be one step back meaning that if you find somebody follow the methodology you just don't cite this work and you just said I made this work based on the work on somebody else and then you stopped no even if you followed a methodology of other research which is totally acceptable you have to describe this methodology in your work and you have to cite it then writing strictly in chronological order some people are thinking methodology is that what I did since I arrived to the lab till I finished publishing doer so he's just mentioning everything chronological in an order of like a timeline I did this I know no it's not this the point the point is that you highlight the key milestones they step the procedural steps that were useful you put them in order and you communicate them to the reader methods and results don't correspond you are using a survey technique and then I find experimental measurements how did you get to that discrepancy so this is also mistake forgetting to use visual organizers methodologies if they get complex you can use visual organizers especially something like that why don't you create something called organizational chart or a graph that shows what methodology how did you do it what was the process so that you facilitate the accessibility of your manuscript and that readers can get excited to understand instead of making their life difficult well protocols are not methods protocol is a series of steps carried out written in a sequential way they are close to a checklist approach while methods are a series of steps already completed so when you write your methodology you have to write it in the past tense don't forget that written should be written in the methodology in a logical order and you have to make it intended for the reader to replicate the experiment so this is very important to take into account what is the purpose of the results now moving to the results section objectively make the data just the data please don't make interpretations I don't know why people in the results section start to make interpretation the results is pure results some readers want to interpret your data themself so please don't impose your your interpretation the interpretation will come in the discussion so keep described the data presented in the figures make it more descriptive and say what are your findings I find this correlation I find this information I found highlight this without giving your personal interpretation an opinion once we move to the discussion section you can do that in the results you have to show me the evidence-based results this result is based on evidence real findings solid data only result you can describe it but not explain it I said that before results have to be concise and reliable and no biography or verbose text verbose text meaning blah blah we talked a lot a lot oh it's not here the point the the result section should be actually one of the shortest sections because it's pure figures the illustrations checklist bullets data you came out with results what differentiate the results from the methods methods are how the data was created results is what data were accumulated and readers expect to find the answer to your research question in the result section very important what differently differentiate results from the discussion results is more data presentation one discussion is more data interpretation that's what I wanted to say earlier that we distinguish interpretation from presentation and make sure that they are not on the same page however you still need to choose which data to present you will not put all that you have to be selective you put the most interesting data that you find representative as results well what are qualities some qualities of well-written results section methods and result should be corresponding this is a quality measure results are presented in a logical order this is also a quality measure results focus on the question or hypothesis hypothesis introduced earlier in the paper these are all criteria for a well-written results now what are some pitfalls when you do will result description overstating your results my figure clearly show we discover don't don't exaggerate you know whatever you did keep it modest and describe it without this very a lot clearly this is all personal verbose subjective language try to make an objective language you're a scientist at the end of the day reporting irrelevant results although it's sometimes useful to report experimental data but if the data is not telling anything why should I put it it's not about showing that you make work and effort we know that you did a LeFort but it is also your intelligence to not waste your time and our time as reviewers or readers and you select actually the key important results omit any visual organizers such as sub heads and including inappropriate illustration so big problems and results not taking enough time to make a good understandable visual a graphic representation figure or table or not having an organizational chart or not having visuals that support the presentation of the results and for sure including methods or discussion in the results option well done we are done with the results we move to the discussion in the discussion you start the interpretation you start the validation how did you validate your work did you compare the simulation results for example with measured data how did you call a break calibrate your map model how did you use case studies to validate your hypothesis you are claiming even you you developed an indicator or a tool or a methodology or a solution or whatever you did did you validate it is here the time to talk with me as a reader tell me what did you do to test that what you claim is correct so it's very important to that and it's very important to do something called triangulation triangulation meaning that you check the subjectivity of your work if you use a technique it may be use another technique if you did simulation can we do experimentation if you do the survey you can do questionnaires and so on it's not easy to do always triangulation this is related to the research methods but as much as you can try to follow the triangulation to avoid bias and to avoid subjectivity and don't be always so happy about what you did you have to be more critical and doubting if this is really valuable and proper represent 'iv objective tangible or not still in the discussion this is the internal validity external validity if this research if it's repeated can we have the same results this is one of the discussions you can work on can these results be generalized or not is it only restricted to us this population or to this group of people or samples very important to discuss that have you need to have a critical assessment provide critical review of the work regarding the methodology and results the implications of the work what are the implications now we have these results we discussed them what is the implication on the society what is the implication on the audience what is the expected impact of this work what can this work contributed at the end and how can we make it applicable and connected to reality to industry and so on and finally what are the study limitations you have to compare your work with other state of the art you have to say what did others do does it make sense these results or not and finally you can move on to the conclusion something not more than 800 words it's a summary with the highlights summary of the work was the result describing the strengths and weakness of the result position work in a larger perspective and the work contribution and the future work so this is for the conclusion section and the conclusions are a brief summary of the discussion you can make things concrete by emphasizing them through discussing the limitation discussing the advantage and discussion discussing the applications related to your major find well last part people sometimes forget it here is the time to acknowledge any funding agency if you got money to come to travel to go to do this research if it's part of a project there is zero tolerance not to mention to funding organizations you must mention the funding organization it is here that you should do it secondly you should mention all people who contributed to this work in person who helped you to acquire this project mention funding organization mentioned those who contributed in person who did not write the paper with you but at least inspired you or in a way or another or gave you input to information finally we reach the references and there is a video on citation on biography but this is how it looks you have to follow a certain standard I advise you always to use the APA and use a software called Zotero for citation but you can watch this in the video this annotation should list all these references based on the protocol or citation of the journal and this is the end of today's presentation by that you have an idea of the structure what is the expectation of a journal paper maybe a final advice I advise you to read journal papers that you like that you feel very close to what you want to do and from there you start to develop your own journal publication I would like to ask you finally to subscribe to my channel if you like the video like it you can comment you can ask questions if you have suggestions for future videos don't hesitate to contact me and by that I would like to thank you for attention and I hope you know more now about how to write a journal paper thank you very much for your attention

24 thoughts on “Writing a journal paper

  1. wow Dr Shady Attia!! this is exactly what i wanted to hear, I can now start with my paper. Thank you so much

  2. Dr. Attia: can i use IEEE style for a journal publication? or should i go back to APA. personally i think IEEE is much more convenient.

  3. I would like to thank you very much, I was not clear about structure of journal article. Now its for me to write, journal article is my PhD requirement.

  4. i really say thanks to you for making such a wonderful video regarding this topic. it is v useful for the researchers like me.
    please make another video on how to publish a paper in unpaid journals with high impact factor. thanks.

  5. How great… I am so glad that I ended up here today…your presentation gave me more direction and structure… I am a PhD student in Belgium.

  6. I put the computer's volume up to 100% and still can hardly hear you. Too much of an impediment to follow the video. You might want to check your audio, fix and repost.

  7. Hello,Shady Attia, I am the editor of the traditional medicine research journal (TMR).The Academic video you uploaded on YouTube is very rich and attractive. I want to apply to you and get your permission.I want to download from YouTube and upload them to the TMR website and App.We especially hope that you will agree. You do not need to do any extra work, we will retains all original author information, not for commercial purposes, does not re-release the video on the tubing (specifically translated video), just to help researchers to learn better.
    I am looking forward to your reply.

  8. Prof Attia

    Thank you so much for the lecture on how to write a journal article. I have just obtained my doctorate in education. I am struggling to write my first journal whichis taken from my thesis. My external examiner indicated that 5 papers can be produced from my thesis. I have started with one article. Your lecture is very insightful. So wish you could give a lecture on how to write articles from one's thesis.

    Warm regards
    Dr Zwelibanzi

  9. Your videos are great. I saw all of your videos about writing a paper and submitting a paper. It helps me a lot, I can't say enough thank you.
    may I ask to make a video about Finding and Applying for Scholarships and topics about that?

  10. Good work dear Dr .Shady it is really useful. I have a question here, what about paper submission fee. I mean is there any fee I have to pay to submit my paper .

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