Selected Writings and Speeches of Marcus Garvey



selected writings and speeches of marcus garvey declaration of the rights of the negro peoples of the world we the duly elected representatives of the negro peoples of the world and Vokoun the aid of the justin almighty god do declare all men women and children of our blood throughout the world free citizens and do claim them as free citizens of africa the motherland of all Negroes international convention of the Negroes of the world New York City August 31st 1920 drafted and adopted at Convention held in New York 1920 over the which Marcus Garvey presided as chairman and at which he was elected provisional president of Africa be it resolved that the Negro people of the world through their chosen representatives and convention assembled in Liberty Hall in the city of New York in the United States of America from August 1st to August 31st in the year of our Lord 1920 protest against the wrongs and justices they are suffering at the hands of their white brethren in state what they deem their fair and just rights as well as the treatment they propose to demand of all men in the future we complain one that no were in the world with few exceptions our black man accorded equal treatment with white men although in the same situation in circumstances but on the contrary our discriminated against and denied the common rights due to human beings for no other reason than their race in color we are not willingly accepted as guests in the public hotels and ends of the world for no other reason than our race and color to in certain parts of the United States of America our race is denied the right of public trial accorded to other races when accused of crime but our lynched and burned by mobs and such brutal and inhuman treatment is even practiced upon our women 3 the European nations have parceled out among themselves and taken possession of nearly all of the continent of Africa and the natives are compelled to surrender their lands to aliens and are treated in most instances like slaves for in a southern portion of the United States of America are those citizens under the Federal Constitution and in some states almost equal to the whites and population and are qualified landowners and taxpayers we are nevertheless denied all voice in the making an administration of the laws and our tax without representation by the state governments and at the same time compelled to the military service and defense of the country five on a public conveyances and common carriers in the southern portion of the united states we are Jim crowed and compelled to accept separate and inferior accommodations and made to pay the same fare charge for first-class accommodations and our families are often humiliated and insulted by drunken white men who habitually passed through the Jim Crow cars going to the smoking car six the positions of our race are denied the right to attend their patients while in public hospitals of the cities and states where they reside in certain parts of the United States our children are forced to attend inferior separate schools for shorter terms and white children and the public school funds are unequally divided between the white and colored schools seven we are discriminated against and denied an equal chance to earn wages for the support of our families and in many instances I refuse admission into labor unions and nearly everywhere I paid smaller wages than white men a in civil service and departmental office we are everywhere discriminated against and made to feel that to be a black man in Europe America and the West Indies is equivalent to being an outcast and a leper among the races of men no matter what the character and attainments of the black man may be 9 in a British and other West Indian islands and colonies Negroes are secretly and cunningly discriminated against and denied those full of Rights and government to which white citizens are appointed nominated and elected 10 that our people in those parts are forced to work for lower wages than the average standard of white men in our keptin conditions repugnant to good civilized tastes and customs 11 that the many acts of injustice against members of our race before the courts of law in the respective islands and colonies are of such nature as to create disgust and disrespect for the white man's sense of justice 12 against all such inhuman unchristian and uncivilized treatment we here and now and Phatak we protest and invoke the condemnation of all mankind in order to encourage our race all over the world and to stimulated to a higher and grander destiny we demand and assist on the following Declaration of Rights 1 be it known to all men they whereas all men are created equal and entitled to the rights of life liberty and the pursuit of happiness and because of this we the duly elected representatives of the Negro people of the world and Vokoun the aid of the all just an Almighty God do declare all men women and children of our blood throughout the world free citizens and do claim them as free citizens of Africa the motherland of all Negroes to that we believe in a supreme authority of our race and all things racial that all things are created and given to man as a common possession that there should be an equitable distribution and appropriation of all such things and a consideration of the fact that we as a race we are now deprived of those things that are morally and legally ours we believe it right that all things should be acquired and held by whatsoever means possible three that we believe the Negro like any other race should be governed by the ethics of civilization and therefore should not be deprived of any of those rights and privileges common to other human beings for we declare that Negroes wheresoever they form a community among themselves should be given the right to elect their own representatives to represent them in legislatures courts of law or such institutions as may exercise control over that particular community five we assert that the Negro is entitled to even-handed justice before all courts of law and equity in whatever country he may be found and when this has denied him on account of his race or color such denial is an insult to the race as a whole instead root be resented by the entire body of Negroes six we declare it unfair and prejudicial to the rights of Negroes and communities where they exist in considerable numbers to be tried by a judge and jury composed entirely of an alien race but in all such cases members of our race are entitled to representation on a jury seven we believe that any law or practice that tends to deprive any African of his land or the privileges of free citizenship within his country is unjust and immoral and no native should respect any such law or practice eight we declare taxation without representation unjust and Terrenas and there should be no obligation on the part of the Negro to obey the levy of attacks by any lawmaking body from which he is excluded and denied representation on account of his race and color nine we believe that any law especially directed against a Negro to his detriment and singling him out because of his race or color is unfair and immoral and should not be respected ten we believe all men entitled the common human respect and in our race should in no way tolerate any insults that may be inter interpreted by to mean disrespect to our color 11 we deprecated the use of the term nigger as applied to Negroes and demand that the word Negro be written with a capital in 12 we believed that the Negro should adopt every means to protect himself against barbarous practices inflicted upon him because of color 13 we believe in the freedom of Africa for the Negro people of the world and by the principle of Europe for the Europeans and Asia for the Asiatics we also demand Africa for the Africans at home and abroad we believe in the inherent right of the Negro to possess himself of Africa and that his possession of the same shall not be regarded as an infringement on any claim or purchase made by any race or nation 15 we strongly condemn the cupidity of those nations of the world who by open aggression or secret schemes have seized the territories and inexhaustible natural wealth of Africa and we place on record our most solemn determination to reclaim the treasures and possessions of the vast continent of our forefathers 16 we believe all men should live in peace with one another but when races and nations provoke their ire or of other races and nations by attempting to infringe upon their rights war becomes inevitable and the attempt in any way to free oneself or protect one's rights or heritage becomes justifiable 17 whereas the lynching by burning hanging or any other means of human beings is a barbarous practice and a shame and disgrace to civilization we therefore declare any country guilty of such atrocities outside the pale of civilization 18 we protest against the atrocious crime of whipping flogging and overworking of the native tribes of Africa and Negroes everywhere these are methods that should be abolished and all means should be taken to prevent a continuance of such brutal practices 19 we protest against the atrocious practice of shaving the heads of Africans especially of African women or individuals of Negro blood when placed in prison as a punishment for crimes by an alien race 20 we protest against segregated districts separate public conveyances industrial discriminate and lynchings and limitations of political private privilege of any Negro citizen in any part of the world on account of race color or creed and will exert our full influence and power against all such 21 we protest against any punishment inflicted upon a Negro with severity as against lighter punishment inflicted upon another of an alien race for like defense as an act of prejudice and injustice and should be resented by the entire race 22 we protest against the system of education in any country where Negroes are denied the same privilege and advantages as other races 23 we declare it inhuman and unfair to boycott Negroes from industries and labor in any part of the world 24 we believe in the doctrine of the freedom of the press and we therefore and frantically protest against the suppression of Negro newspapers and periodicals in various parts of the world and call upon Negroes everywhere to employ all available means to prevent such suppression 25 we further demand free speech universally for all men 26 we hereby protests against the publication of scandalous and inflammatory articles by an alien press tending to create racial strife and the exhibition of picture films showing the Negro as a cannibal 27 we believe in self-determination of all peoples 28 we declared for the freedom of religious worship 29 with the help of Almighty God we declare ourselves the sworn protectors of the honor and virtue of our women and children and pledged our lives for the protection and defense everywhere and under all circumstances from wrongs and outrages 30 we demand the right of unlimited and unprejudiced education for ourselves and our posterity forever 31 we declare that the teaching in any school by alien teachers to our boys and girls that the alien race is superior to the Negro race is an insult to the Negro people of the world 32 where Negroes form a part of the citizenry of any country and passed a civil service examination of such country we declare them entitled to the same consideration as other citizens as to appointments in such civil service 33 we vigorously protest against the increasingly unfair and unjust treatment accorded Negro travelers on land and sea by the agents employees of railroad and steamship companies and insist that for equal fare we receive equal privileges and travels and travelers of other races 34 we declare it in just for any country state or nation to enact laws tending to hinder and obstruct the free immigration of Negroes on account of their race in color 35 that the right of the Negro to travel unmolested throughout the world be not abridge by any person or persons and all Negroes are called upon to give aid to a fellow Negro when thus molested 36 we declare that all Negroes are entitled to the same right to travel over the world as other men 37 we hereby demand that the governments of the world recognize our leader and his representatives chosen by the race to leak look after the welfare of our people under such governments 38 we demand complete control of our social institutions without the interference by an alien race or races 39 that the colors red black and green be the colors of the Negro race 40 resolved at the anthem Ethiopia that land of our fathers etc shall be the anthem of the Negro race 41 we believe that any limited Liberty which deprives one of the complete rights and prerogatives of full citizenship is but a modified form of slavery 42 we declared an injustice to our people and a serious impediment to the health of the race two denied to competent license Negro physicians to rights to practice in the public hospitals of the communities in which they reside for no other reason in the race in color 43 we call upon various governments of the world to accept and acknowledge Negro representatives who shall be sent to the state governments to represent the general welfare of the Negro peoples of the world 44 we deplore and protest against the practice of confining juvenile prisoners prisoners and prisons with adults and we can recommend that such youthful prisoners be taught gainful trades under humane supervision 45 be it FURTHER RESOLVED that we as a race of people declare the League of Nations null and void as far as the Negro is concerned in that it seeks to deprive Negroes of their liberty 46 we demand of all men to do unto us as we would do unto them in the name of justice and we cheerfully Accord to all men all the rights we claim here and for ourselves 47 we declared that no Negro shall engage himself in battle for an alien race without first obtaining the consent of the leader of the Negro people of the world except in a matter of national self-defense 48 we protest against the practice of drafting Negroes and sending them to war with alien races without proper training and demand in all cases that Negro soldiers be given the same training as the aliens 49 we demand that instructions given Negro children and schools include the subject of Negro history to their benefit 50 we demand a free unfettered commercial intercourse with all the Negro peoples of the world 51 we declare for the absolute freedom of the Seas for all people 52 we demand that our duly accredited representatives be given proper recognition in all leagues conferences conventions of Courts or international arbitration wherever human rights are discussed 53 we proclaim the 31st day of August of each year to be in International holiday to be observed by all Negroes 54 we want all men to no we shall maintain and contend for the freedom and equality of every man woman and child of our race with Our Lives our Fortunes and our sacred honor these rights we believe to be justly ours and proper for the protection of the Negro race at large and because of this belief we on behalf of the 400 million Negroes of the world do pledge here in the sacred blood of the race and defense and we hereby subscribe our names as a guarantee of the truthfulness and faithfulness here of in the presence of Almighty God on the 13th day of August in the year of our Lord 1920

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