INDS525 The literature review

hi everyone it's Sunday night I just wanted to film a quick video concerning literature review some of you had questions and it seemed quicker to answer this in a video than to answer several emails so objectives for this short video are going to be to explore the rationale behind the literature review as an exercise and show everyone's understanding of the literature abusal I am so you will come from here at different stages of your masters or come from different backgrounds so just want to check that we all have a common understanding so I apologize if I repeat things that you know already but it's best to make sure that everyone's working with the same sort of basics and discuss the expectations in a bit holes so why do we need a literature review the first reason is that from an ideological point of view we never see science scientific findings as they need product and it's never about a specific point where things and because something is concluded if you're interested in philosophy of science we regardless of Theory theoretical positions that that you adopt we'd pretty much except that we are limited in our understanding of the world by our perceptions therefore all we can do is strive to improve our processes to get closer and closer and closer to the world as really years but we all the philosophy of science also sort of accepts even from the positive as point of view except that and that will never get there that we have to keep working at it because we are limited by our perceptions and therefore we are still not empirically but even the way our brain is designer in form schemas means that we may be projecting and understanding of the world rather than seeing the world as it videos all this to say that we we see the scientific process as never-ending and therefore the point is to always take whatever findings or whatever discovers to be not in scientific process a little bit further it's that little step that defines a scientific process it's not stopping once we we have an understanding of a phenomena but to keep working from what has been sort of examine and explore before and to take the process it's a collective endeavor that never ends so it is very important that we do a literature review because otherwise we would be pretending to be starting from from from from somewhere and going the whole way by yourself that's not a case because it's collective endeavor we are sort of picking up the torch for a little while a very small step and therefore before we pick up the torch we must actually assess where we are so that we know where we are taking this collective endeavor and through a little step a little step into research so it's very important because it really means that if everyone only does this you know objectively and say their little piece of the puzzle the collective puzzle we don't do something effective unless we know actually where we start from and so once the research has identified the evidence that has already exist and has been analyzed it's important that we see what remains to be done right for you to take that all step forward you need to take it into the direction that is useful not in the direction of something that has been examine explore their lives so that's the second very important reason to do a literature review is that we don't aim in our research towards something that's already been actually analyzed and explore so which is to direct this next little step that we're taking in the right direction towards something that is still sort of unexplored so it's very important for that reason to that we do a literature review because otherwise without the literature review you would be taking full steps all the time you would actually be trying to explore and examine things that have already been looked at by other people so it's a way of making sure that we are actually truly taking a step forward collectively and not back stepping into something that someone else has done already and this happens a lot often you know even a thesis level you will have a question in mind and then when you do the literal you realize someone s already explore this in depth and therefore there's not much point doing that so that's not what called a gap in the literature and when you do authentic research good data collection analysis you are aiming for that gap you don't start til you've identified a gap so that's what the literature review will allow to do it will also allow you to identify exactly that little step that is still that is still not covered by others and that you will be original in actually exploring and my last point I want to say that there are many angles to examine a single issue theoretical angles phenomenological angles but also simply you know I'll give you an example you could be looking at I can be an example from education since I work in education you could be looking for example at the parents attitudes to the use of technology in the classroom before you move forward in the exploration of that theme or data collection it will be essential that you determine whether you're looking at this in a global North country or in a dual caption because and the factors will be different available will different the context will be different so you will be actually looking and exploring and completed and so even a question that is design can have completely different meanings depending on the context that you can consider it in so that's what your literature review does as well it's actually going to narrow down the parameter so that your question is clear in the context of your question is clear so for example if you have a question does it relate to some of you are looking for example of LGBTQ th+ issues in education but obviously it's gonna be a very different question whether you're looking in a k-12 context or in a post-secondary context and that's sort of thing that the literature review clarifies the angle that you're taking okay so those are the three reason why we do that now obviously you are doing an exercise you're not doing an data collection in this course so you're not and doing sort of authentic research you're doing your research in how people's research so the gap in the literature it is not going to be essential here in the sense that you are not trying to identify an area within which you're going to do data collection but still so here it's not a genuine but field exercise of the loot review you're not doing this as preparation for a study you're doing it as an academic exercise and the academic exercise is pretty much the same all the way to identify that gap in the literature so you can still identify a gap in the literature but it's not essential because all you're trying to do really is narrow down to a very very specific issue and that seems to be of interest still looking have public simply because it's emerging or because there isn't enough literature so that's what you'll be trying to prove not Nestle I didn't I get for yourself but just showing it's a good direction to possibly prepare for future future research entries into the data collection and you've got another link there this our slides I picked up from out of course HD teaching intro to research and graduate seminar so to be honest I'd not completely and you know design is for you I've been reusing slide where they had and but it's awesome link so I thought I'd leave the links and so you've got more material if you do want to explore key skills develop what our main skills were that implicit rule so as I've explained to you you are narrowing down so an image always like to say is that it's almost like you're like a funnel when you start you want to start very wide you don't make any assumption you actually introduce you your general area and then progress with yogaman narrow down and narrow down and narrow down and then each level of narrowing down you're going to acknowledge the fact that this other research which exists at that level around this theme but you're not considering it because you your direction is based decision so and you could be looking for example I tell gdq bytes and then you will probably this so that we do wider the virus and you'll have to give a few references there but then you will quickly say that you actually interested in LGBTQ rights in a 21st century in 2019 and not the history of it was reteach you right so you would already there be doing a sort of sort of closing in a little bit and found starting to form you can dodge this other research that has looked at for example historical research that looks at a particular went through a historical lens or sociological lens but that's not what you're looking at and then you would narrow it down a little bit more and say that you're interested in in youth for example so we stay on the same example so youth you'll probably have to define a look at some of the richer the experience have me define youth within that context and some of the characteristics of rejecting future at two LS plus youth and you look at some of the literature that already your knowledge in there's also literature which refers to you and the whole spectrum of life spectrum of individuals and in a community but you're not looking at that for your specific needs you targeting youth and then after that you're going to say hey but what you're interested in really is looking at an education context and therefore you have to reference for that and that's still going to be dealing with a whole spectrum of Education and then you might say that actually you interested in k-12 education and problems of Alameda k2 plus s so s plus in in in a k-12 so you acknowledge the fact that higher education the literature but you're focusing on the k-12 literature and then your topic might be specifically on on harassment so you acknowledge the fact that they are there's other research as we search around the academic challenges of youth in within community but you're working at inter inter inter will they interpersonal relationships and test interpreters personal relationship and bullying in harassment so you knowledge the rest of the literature quickly but then you focus on what you're really looking at but then is getting pretty specific you probably have a little less literature to mention after that you might actually be looking at instead of the whole spectrum maybe you actually interested in looking specifically you know I had some members of the community and if I as being by for example and so that would be some way of a much more restricted sort of body of literature and at that point you probably arrived at what we call the gap Naruto you probably take them two or three and sort of remember you know references that are getting close to there but you can then identify that it's probably still a need for more research and it's probably something which is on the research at that level so you start very wide your references you only need one or two but quickly you sort of funnel in to explain what exactly is the a order you want in but you're also still acknowledging and getting a nod to the research that exists within that sphere but you're not picking up because it's not specifically and you're you area and very starters well don't forget as I've said the Churchill of you is gonna specify things like I work in a global South for global versus gonna be they important because and regarding the community are very different in different political settings so make sure you identify that from the start history stock goes well but in my example I told you contemporary versus historical that's something at the very beginning of this of these four groups that you need to also try it fine because your literature you could look very different if you are not looking at on the contemporary issues but you're looking at what sort of scale of historical progression that's about it if you can keep that in mind and what I recommend as well is you know and try and pick a few great articles that have a literature review and most do and most studies will have a literature review now not always again postmodern writers have a very different approach to writing articles and often be considered it don't really need a methodology because they're really deconstructing so they they can actually just sort of sit back and take you know a sociological approach and these cultural representations that we use everyday and then start the community constructive and that's really what they focus on so and there's a lot of postmodern sort of papers within topic in in this field so be careful but everything else is going to be you know that position and software studies probably gonna have a methodology station and we'll have a literature review section so you know also that's another way of getting yourself used to it sort of browse obviously there are bad literature reviews and the good literature review so you can't just depend on what you find because I bet stroke of luck you may actually find things that are a vision unfortunately things are badly written still get published but I hope that you can pass a few journals and and and pick a couple good examples for you of Gilad you and engage yourself on that and I think I've talked about most things I've given you a few more a few more examples there if you want to ever look at that and I had some Q&A is for the that was a face to face class I was teaching was the difference between literature review and meta-analysis some of you probably have come across this the meta-analysis sometimes called systematic reviews is not actually a literal view so it's actually a proper study and it actually does data analysis so what it does is that it uses past findings as data so it's an it's an analysis of second secondary data if you are so normally method meta analysis or a systematic review will function by saying that they are looking at a specific question a specific theme and that that occurs in studies and so they will determine the packages of the search so they will look at for example from nine year from 2009 to 2010 in E studies that mentions transgendered youth right in schools so you would enter select carefully in the keywords for your library searches you would then have a methodology in this the methodology will you would explain how you craft your search your searches for the library database and probably in search engines as well you would actually explain this to the reader that's your methodology you would explain how many studies sort of fit the criteria in you're working with so it might be 5 million 16 something and then that's your data and then you will be analyzing trends and patterns in that data so it's very different than literature review it looks like a literature review it's very different in a sense that believe it has a beginning and end it has a theme number of articles within there and that is actually your data so you have very different relationship to it because you're actually analyzing often through coding tools you're analyzing the way certain themes or topics come up frequency the way they dealt with sometimes with Roger that's applied to get you a result but your literature review is wider obviously you're sort of looking at a general your you explain the fact that you've read it and how you position all these different readings together just a different dynamic analysis to present in the present or the past a lot of controversy over this and I would just say be consistent it doesn't really matter to me but be consistent don't keep switching that's the only problem we see is when students start in the present go to the past so just decide which one you prefer and then how long should it be a little bit view in the real world consists of it's a fairly important part of view of an article an article only for submissions 5,000 words I would say that the literal you cannot be more than a thousand because then you're eating interview your data methodology later analysis so no more than a thousand words in the real world and as an academic resides obviously it can vary depending on who's that's it isn't a computer science is a social thing as too much improved and not really don't be afraid in the literature section which for a new section of the journal article if you press on you will see that it's not it can contain a lot of in text citations a lot of in-text references the point is you are showing that you've explored the field fully so more is better than less but obviously all you are also you know you are also showing that you don't just browse but you've read these ratings and you explore them intensively so it's no point there's not one citing something if you haven't had time to really be that really you know explorer and another question is is the first person present ability the first person is never present in the literature review now in the phonology now it's accepted and if you're working ethnographically from theological point of view the author often quotes the data will position himself and explain that they're present and sort of break this fiction but in the little review you don't you don't use the first person it would be a section when no one uses the first the first person that's that doesn't mean you're not present you are saying much presence and that's what's a little strange little ironic we don't use the first person but we're definitely definitely present because your mind is present you're not just putting a checklist of of readings you are actually assuring them their relations you're showing the contradictions you're showing you know these offices that this office is there you are creating it showing the logical link between this and the reason why the logical link exists is because you have read and explored and are sort of creating a connection between all this reading so you are present but not grammatically and another thing which just I just thought about never might be will be come back to me what should we go update 10 years and I think here they've given you a it's a faculty the college mean to you interesting studies I think I'll asked for even less having it says seven generally as a rule it's ten if you can then stick to the directive this be given by the college you've got more in depth meetings there and some more links as well there that might be useful another yes someone was asking yeah I think in a question do I do i and that relates to my last comment do I relate do I talk about things that are in contradiction to through the main readings and I'm sort of leaning towards so yes as you sort of again some and you know you sort of hone in and you you you've created some a movement towards a very specific issue at every level when you're giving sort of the scope of the literature you are trying to be balanced the point of a literature review is that it's not just what you like it's what's actually in the field you're giving a sort of snapshot of what the field is so if there's a debate for example and you know how to define certain terms you are going to have to present authors on both side and actually explain that this attention or it got to me or that there's different views on a specific term or concept or an approach so you are supposed to be as objective as you can in your selection of literature and you do show things as as being opposed which might be important I feel because sometimes it contradictory and so the literature outside of Nestle the community at some time you have to account for win the little review as well and so I hope this is helpful stop now because there's no point going for too long it was supposed to be a short video it is anything else you can still in Romney obviously but so there would be a lot of questions about make more sense to you and discuss this generally for everyone to see and then we can tackle individual questions so I will also post close off week two and I will probably set an intro to more money on Monday for another you what your tasks are for unit 3 and and our backup unit 2 as well so if you've not already posted on the forum you can use a time until until Monday and I'll look at that and wrapper oh good night and have a good week bye bye

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