Improving Your Literature Review with NVivo for Mac

welcome to the webinar my name is Noel Wyman Ross today's session is a demonstration of nvivo for mac I'll give a high-level overview of the capabilities of invivo for mac with a specific focus on improving your literature review as we get started this afternoon I wanted to let you know that you're all muted however please do send your questions over in the question box via GoToWebinar so type them up send them over and I'll have some time at the end of today's session to answer them all so please use that question feature to let me know if you're having any technical difficulties at any point during the webinar right now you should be able to see my screen and see a slide that says meet in vivo improving your literature review and the last thing I wanted to let you all know today is that today's session will go by quickly it's designed to give you a brief high-level overview of the ways in vivo can improve your literature review we are recording today's session however and you will receive the recording I am as well as it will be posted to our YouTube channel so you will be able to access this recording of the session at a future date it can be a challenge when you're conducting a literature review to keep track of all of your articles key findings and influential authors Devo can import PDFs and bibliographic information from reference management software you can efficiently organize and tag literature easily keep track of critical quotes track idea and track ideas across many articles you can bring in an entire library from EndNote refworks Zotero or Mendeley into nvivo for mac where you can manage bibliographic information and articles in a single convenient location in vivo format can handle a variety of data types when working with literature you can import PDFs as well as you can import PDFs as well as entire libraries including attached PDFs from reference management software and very recently we have added the capability to import from additional reference management software which means now you can import from EndNote refworks Mendeley or Zotero once you have your literature in invivo you can use in people to quickly identify key terms across multiple articles this word cloud is live to the data and in vivo so you can easily explore how these terms are being used word trees help you identify prominent words and phrases these are produced using text search queries which are sophisticated find of words and phrases hierarchy charts help you visualize patterns and your coding or attribute values this is a type of hierarchy chart called a tree map and it's visualizing coding for articles in my literature review by modifying the chart to look at one article at a time I can easily see which topics or are more prominent in different articles this is another type of hierarchy chart called a sunburst which is visualizing bibliographic trends across my literature here I can see when articles were published across my literature library the outer ring represents the number of articles from each year in nvivo this is identical ization and I can zoom in to see the authors of these articles for example these are all of the articles published in 2005 explore diagrams are a dynamic visualization that help you explore connections between your project items for instance in this Explorer diagram I can see all of the articles that have coding for a given topic today I'll introduce some of the tools in nvivo that are useful when you're conducting a literature review I'll start by showing how to bring in libraries from reference management software into I'll be working with EndNote but keep in mind you can now work with libraries from Zotero refworks and Mendeley then I'll cover some tools within invivo specifically the word frequency and text search queries that can help you quickly understand key concepts in your literature nodes which are buckets for qualitative data pull together information from multiple sources of literature this makes it easy to see how an article I'm sorry how an idea or concept has manifested across articles or authors and finally we'll take a look add some tools that can help you visualize trends and connections in your literature namely a hierarchy chart and the exploit area Graham will move into invivo next all invivo projects follow the same basic process the first step is to gather data then you create an in vivo project and import those materials from there you can analyze and explore your data through sophisticated coding and query functions as well as create a beautiful visualization that helps you learn more about your data and communicate your findings to others so we're going to move out of PowerPoint and actually move directly into an EndNote library so today I'm going to be working with some literature on environmental education and the first step to bring an endo library into and vivo is to export it so here is all my literature and I need to select all of it and I want to go ahead and export my literature and I prefer APA 6 that's fine by me but I need to make sure that I switch the file type to XML so that's the file format that I need in order to bring it into invivo and I just realized I forgot to attach a handout went to go to webinar which I'll do right now and that handout includes links to our online help which detail all of the formats that you need gives you details on if you're using different reference management software the format's that you need to export to and I'm going to go ahead and put this on my desktop so I can easily find it okay so now that I've exported my literature I'm going to move into invivo and I've already created a blank project here and now I need to import my library so I need to tell invivo I'm bringing in information from EndNote navigate to my XML and here I have the option to import my literature either named by author in year or by title again because I tend to work in APA I like author in year and I can also it's telling me whether depending on whether I'm using different types of files for example maybe online books or I might have multiple record types in my library I can create a single classification or different ones I like single it's simple it's easy everything's going to be reference now invivo is telling me what where it's going to put everything that it's bringing into my project file so I'm going to go ahead and click OK because it's going to take a second to think and I'll talk you through what is meant by internals and externals so all of the citations in my library that had an attached PDF that attached PDF will come in my internals folder so we're looking at the internals folder here and you can see it's loading in literature that from my EndNote library anything that didn't have a an attached PDF when people will create an external an external is a proxy document that you can use to take notes on data that you cannot import into invivo so I'll show you what an external looks like in just a moment and so for example if you were including a hardcover book that you have sitting on your shelf obviously you can't you know short of scanning the entire book you can't bring that in so in vivo you can create this document that you can use an in vivo called an external to take notes on that book so here we have all of my literature and I can open it up and take a look alright here some your some literature and I can select the text that means the text has been recognized here so this is all the PDFs from my literature library and then down here in externals I have just one article that doesn't have an attached PDF and here you can see you know either I didn't have access to this or maybe it's a hardcover book and this is just a blank document and if I were to tell in vivo okay I want to edit this I can use this to take notes on a book or other data I can't bring in to in vivo another thing I want to draw your attention to are these little icons there was one next my external there's one here this is telling me that there's a memo link so if you have additional information that you've captured an EndNote sometimes these reference management software will grab the abstract keywords maybe you've made notes you can open the memo link or it will bring that information in as a memo and then you can open the linked memo so it keeps it closely time so here I can see on this Apple B article it's actually grabbed the abstract for me so this might give me a little more information what this article is about do I want to go track it down gives me the keywords and here's my little note that I need access and I can also add additional notes about this if I wanted to the reference information that was associated with my articles is stored in classification specifically source classifications here we go and here you can see that I've got each one of my articles it's captured the author the year the title is still there even if you named your articles and by author year still has the title and all of the other bibliographic information so it's still nicely organized for you now that I have my literature in nvivo I want to get a high-level view of what some potential trends might be in these data so I like to use a word frequency query to do that in word frequency query helps me to identify possible themes by analyzing frequently used words and phrases in my data so as a reminder we're working with some environmental education literature so those are the themes that we should see popping up and when I run the query invivo has calculated what the most frequently used words on my data arm and it's ignoring certain words as well so it has a built-in stop words list to ignore filler words like it is that and then if there are any words that are on this list that I might want to exclude for example also okay that appears a lot but doesn't tell me very much I can add that to the stop words list and when I rerun my query that word is gone another useful tool in the word frequency query is the ability to automatically group words together so right now it's accounting exact matches own lane so that means that's counting the word talk it's example given here is it different were than talking or environment is a different word than environmental I have the option to include stem words so I could group together words with the same stem so when I run it at that it's going to show me what words it's grouped together here I can move things around get a little more real estate so I can see the full list of words that people's grouped together so now my top word here is environmentally it's counting multiple permutations of that word so multiple the stem is the same but the end few characters are different right so it's using the same stems and people will also generate a word cloud for me so this should be a relatively familiar visualization it's an easy way to look at my data the larger the word the more frequently it appears so here I have obviously environmentally is a big one researcher is a big one sustains develops these might be words that I want to explore a little bit further so let's say I want to explore a particular term and more depth and I've chosen learning here because I want to know you know how people are talking about learning you know what types of learning are being discussed in these literature what learning theories are being mentioned so I want to run a text search query from my word frequency query now a text search query can be run from scratch or from with an award frequency query like I just done and here it's searching automatically for learn and all of its stems so I can modify this maybe I don't want that apostrophe in there so I can rerun it oops here we go I can rerun that query so this is modifiable to whatever you need and the text search query helps me to explore the use in context and meaning of words helps me to see if an idea or topic is prevalent across my data it's a sophisticated find of words and phrases essentially so here in the summary view I can see a list of all the articles and which learn or any one of the stems appears in the reference view I can see learn with any one of the stems with a little bit of context and the word tree groups that context onto branches so it's a great way to get a quick view of trends in my data so give it a second to think so I can quickly see if there are words that are frequently being used before or after a given word so here I can see that learning is used a lot and people are writing about learning environments group learning geographical learning free choice learning for learning field learning facilitate experiential environmental not surprising here collaborative climate classroom and here I've got a pretty sizable branch related to problem-based learning and let's say I want to explore how this term is being used in a little more depth so I can run another texted query continue to dive into my data for problem-based learning so here I've got all mentions of problem-based learning with a little bit of context a summary of all the articles in which that term appears and it's generated a new word tree for me and I wanted to mention that you can export all visualizations that are created in invivo you'll frequently see me right click so I use two fingers down to right-click or control-click and I can choose to export the visualization as a static image again I can modify this text search query so maybe I know that there's a common acronym used in my literature and maybe sometimes it's spelled without the hyphen so when I rerun my query it's going to look for all of those and it's actually pulled up even more responses here and I can see at this high level overview the summary level that there are three articles that discuss problem-based learning one of which mentions problem-based learning a whole bunch and the other few just a couple of times so this is probably the article that I really want to hone in on to read about problem-based learning I can also use a text search query to gather all mentions of problem-based learning across articles to a node and you can think of a node as like a pin or a bucket into which you put qualitative data and the way nodes work is they gather related material to one place so you can look for emerging patterns and ideas you can create and code two nodes manually which I'll show you in just a moment or automatically through a query which we'll do right now so I want to save the results as a new node called problem-based learning because I'm creating this from a query it's going to put it in this temporary folder called the results folder so hit save results I'll navigate down to my results folder and drag this over to my nodes and here I have let's clean up a little bit my very first node now that I've opened my node I can see that it's grabbed every single mention of problem-based learning with different spellings potentially but it didn't grab any context and so part of the qualitative data here of qualitative data as you is the context right you want to know not just a count of problem-based learning how many times it appears I want to know what's being said about problem-based learning so I can add context by selecting some coding references going down to spread coding here and telling in vivo to grab more contacts so here I've grabbed the surrounding paragraph so as I mentioned the text search query is a great way to jump start coding for key concepts but you can also manually code articles as you read them so I can create some some nodes right off the bat that I've for things that I know I want to look for for instance let's say I want to keep track of gaps in the literature maybe I want to track specific findings from the articles and look across them and I can also create nodes as I go so as I read through these data looks like some of these this first article does discuss problem is learning a bit and one of the coding references here is actually a citation of another article so this the texted query can also help you identify other articles you might want to explore to read more about or add to your literature review if you're focusing on problem-based learning but this kuan and so 2008 article is really the one that I think it has 82 references lots mentions a problem-based learning so I actually want to explore that article so when I click the hyperlink it brings up the article and because I've accessed the article from within a node it's showing me some highlighting for coding I can easily add or remove things from a node and when I'm coding I actually like to have something called coding stripes on is another visual indicator of where there's coding so I've got highlighting and then these vertical bars over here this problem-based coding so nodes are infinitely flexible I can add or remove merge them together delete and so let's say I want to remove some of this text from the node because I actually don't want to code the abstract or the keywords so I can select all of the text that I want to remove two fingers down to right-click and then I uncoded selection at existing nodes I'd say this one and the highlighting goes away and so does a coding stripe so as I scroll down I find more mentions of problem-based learning and I can start to read through what's being said here and maybe code for some additional concepts so when I'm coding I like to turn off highlighting and I can start to read through and it looks like here this article starts to discuss some of the benefits of problem-based learning so I can select these data code them and a new node called benefits I can do this lots of different types of learning lots of different ideas and later on down the line if I want to bring up all the places where different authors describe the benefits of problem-based learning I can use a coding query to do that I can say okay invivo show me all the places where there's coding for these two ideas and it will bring that up for me we will agree always selected the wrong one let's do problem based learning there it is let's move on to explore some ways that you can visualize trends and coding in your literature I'm actually going to move into another project that has more coding to sample themes will still be working with the same data it's just going to have some additional coding so a subset of the data actually so here are my sample themes that have been coded if I want to get a high-level overview of my coding I can use a hierarchy chart a hierarchy chart is a a tool that helps me visualize coding patterns and so I'm looking at coding here across all of my articles and I can zoom out all the little boxes are for child nodes so if I just want to see the top level nodes top level themes here I can see that my articles discuss learning and programs and students quite a bit if I wanted to zoom in to see the child nodes this is actually a dynamic visualization so I can step forward and backwards into an ad up to see high level or zoom in to see more detail I can all Oh tell nvivo that I want to see the qualitative data so the information that's coded to learning and I can easily do that as well like all visualizations this is exportable as a static image I can also change my hierarchy chart to look at the coding for just one article so you can create different hierarchy charts for different articles so you have a visual comparison of prevalent topics so I want to look actually not at all sources but maybe I want to look at coding for just one article so I can see what topics are most prominent in this article so one thing that's different here is that this article appears to be about urban whether that's urban settings urban youth I can dive in to see I can also choose to visualize attribute values in this case when working with literature attribute values are bibliographic information that I've brought in when I imported my literature library so I can easily see to create a new hierarchy chart here so starting from scratch which articles were published in which years by visualizing attribute values for sources so I can take a look I can scroll down to year and then I also want to break it down by author so in just a few clicks here I can see which articles were published when what my ear spread is I can also change the view so originally it opened as a tree map but for attribute information I like the sunburst it's kind of like a pie chart so I can see here all of the years you know in which the articles were published and if I wanted to zoom in and see which articles were published in that year I can click that wedge and it will bring up the list of articles by author here the last thing that I want to show you today is an explorer diagram which will help you visualize connections between articles so you could see for instance all of the nodes to which given article is coded so let's return to my article list and pick an article and create an explorer diagram and there's a lot of coding here that can be a good thing and I can zoom in it's going to be a little messy and I can see to which this a visual of to which nodes there has been coding and let's say I'm curious I can pick maybe this one program is a good one I can change the focus to take a look at all of the articles that discuss program and I can step backwards through my data and zoom in again and maybe see which ones are discussing constructivist approach are there any other articles that discuss a constructivist approach and in fact there are and again I just want to mention that all of these visualizations are exportable so you can take it out of invivo put it in a presentation share with a colleague so I'm going to take a few moments to answer some questions here so feel free to send that over if you have any questions one question I only have one at the moment so if you have any questions please do send those over oh this question is about using sente as reference software with in vivo I have actually never heard of centime or sent not sure how to print lab what I can tell you is that both Mac and PC allow you to import from EndNote refworks Mendeley and Zotero and if there's something else that you would like us to do please you know let us know you can send us an email we're always looking for ways to improve the software alright any additional questions oh great question you do not have to use a reference management software and you can just import the articles on their own so you could just choose to bring in PDFs that you've gathered I do just as a big-picture thing I do recommend using reference management software because it serves so many different useful purposes so when you get to citing writing up your literature review it makes it really easy to cite it makes it really easy to create a reference list or bibliography so I do if you if you don't use one I do recommend that you give them a shot I know that many universities provide endnote and refworks and zotero is free and I believe Mendeley is as well so I'm not for sure on Mendeley but I definitely check check out one of those options Oh question about importing from SPSS so if you wanted to bring in data from SPSS you would need to turn it into an Excel spreadsheet and keep in mind that in vivo is a qualitative data analysis tool so you're going to in order for the data from SPSS to be useful for you you need to have some open-ended data question about a feature that's available that shows the correlation between multiple themes simultaneously so one of the tools that will allow you to do that is the coding query remember how I showed you to do that so you could say I want to see a data that's coded to this and this and this if I wanted to and there there may not be anything that's coded to all three we'll find out maybe let's just try to uh so there's some data there so you that's one way to explore correlation between themes this is done through overlaps and coding so these are just sample themes they're sort of dummy they don't really mean anything they're not particularly meaningful so please don't use this as a guide when developing your own themes but so that the coding query is one way for you to explore overlaps and your themes another tool is a matrix coding query so you can explore overlaps between know between nodes and nodes between articles and nodes so I could say show me across all of my articles um coding for these themes when I run the query and it might take a second to run no it didn't and it shows me across all the articles what coding has been done for each one of these themes and I like to turn on cell shading so it gives me a sense of weight here it's like a heat map and so I can see that this article discusses students a lot and I can double click on that and bring up all mentions from students from this article and then just quickly another instance of a matrix coding queries if I wanted to explore the overlaps between themes so maybe this group of themes to this other group of themes these bottom of my list here I can do that if there's thing I recommend that if there's something that you didn't quite catch that you review the video and also take a look at our handout that's attached to GoToWebinar has great resources on how to do things in in vivo and if by the way if we don't get to your question this afternoon I am going to provide some contact information so that you can reach out to us and get your question answered so last question I'll take for now is if you have other data that you want to analyze with your literature you can certainly bring it in so you could choose to bring in interviews as well what I recommend is that you create a folder in your project one for literature and one for your interviews and I can easily move this literature into my literature folder here and that way you just keep yourself organized so that you keep your literature separate from your interviews but you can also bring it together because you have it all in the same project alright so let's go back into PowerPoint and send over any additional questions that you might have and I want to provide you some information about licensing options as well as additional resources that you might take a look at if you want to know more about how to do things in in vivo so today I have shown you multiple ways to see what's in your literature start to dive in more deeply and produce visualizations that are interesting and insightful we have customers using vivo to do literature reviews manage large multi method projects and work collaboratively we do offer a number of licensing options and hopefully you can find one that works for you we offer discounted student licenses for invivo from Mac and these are full functionality but limited to 12 months full licenses are perpetual one-time purchase licenses for individuals you can also choose to purchase an optional subscription which entitles you to priority support and any new versions that are released during the term of your subscription if there's a group of you at your organization that's interested in using invivo you might consider an enterprise License Agreement there are a number of benefits to being an ela holder with us including free access to new versions and priority support and if you'd like to try and Bevo before you buy give our free 14-day trial a shot which is available from our website q SR international comm we want to make sure you're successful with your in vivo project so to that end we offer some paid training and free resources on the paid training side we offer on-site classroom workshops these are typically two days long check out the event calendar on our website to see if we're coming to a city near you and if you have a group that's interested in learning in vivo let us know and we're happy to set up a training we also offer online courses at a beginner and more advanced level these are self-paced and students receive a discount and if you'd like to sit down with us to discuss your individual project we're happy to set up a consulting session on the free resources side again I want to refer you to the handout attached to GoToWebinar which has links to everything I'm about to mention we have a great YouTube channel with how-to videos and recordings of recent webinars and there's also recording of this demo that will be available on YouTube another great resource that our user communities we have a Facebook page LinkedIn group user forums and an active Twitter community these are a great place to interact with other in vivo users and get answers from one of our experts there are many links to our online help documents which are a great place to get detailed information on how to do anything in nvivo and keep an eye on our event calendar for additional free webinars our meet in vivo series is a great way to get acquainted with useful features in vivo if we didn't get a chance to answer your question today or if you would like more information please reach out to us at America's IQs are international calm and I like to provide our Twitter information as well if you're on Twitter we'd love to connect with you our main twitter handles at Q us are int we post news upcoming sessions and sometimes cool things that our users are doing within vivo and if at any point you have a technical issue with in vivo our support team is available through our website q sr international comm as well as through their Twitter handle IQs are sub and I'm a ten women Ross I like to share tips and tricks and answer questions from invivo users on Twitter thanks so much for joining me today and best of luck with your in vivo project you

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