George Baird & Timothy Hyde: "Writings on Architecture and the City"



you program of architecture and art I'm co-chair of HTC forum is semester along with my colleague Rafael Silva adjusting our lights and we very much like to thank Allah touched even fun for generously publicans lecturer HTC 4m allows that the students in our program an opportunity to bring to campus those scholars we might intellectually compelling and challenging scholars we find ourselves returning to or discovering as we engage their scholarship and courses and our own research persons forum creates space and time for discussion within our department just as it aims to engage the art in architectural communities in Boston and Cambridge so our speaker tonight professor George Baird is certainly no stranger to the Cambridge community prior to his tenure as Dean and the faculty of architecture landscape and design at the University of Toronto professor graders professor of architecture at the Graduate School of Design at Harvard University he has published and lectured widely throughout most parts of the world and his recent collection of twenty four essays entitled writings on architecture and the city is both an accumulation and a fresh view into many decades of Barrett spot on the political and social status of urban public space the role of planning and the desired and critical architecture and you know conveniently as you'll see here we have copies at the front and a back for your perusal or purchase written on sale tonight so professors barons private publications include meaning and architecture which he co-edited with charles jencks in 1969 and q's rendevouz riots which he co-edited in 1995 it is also on the road of a book on Albert Alto and a book entitled to the space of appearance as well as many of the rest days professor Barrett's architecture and urban design firm bear is Sampson neuer architects is the winner of numerous design awards and Baird as a fellow of the Royal architectural Institute of Canada he is in the recipient of the Toronto arts foundations architecture and design award in 1992 and the davinci medal of the Ontario Association of artists and two thousand and tonight oh I'm not done because we have somebody else up here with us tonight we're very excited about we have professor timothy hi joining us the front and professor high as most of us in here is currently associate professor in HTC at MIT professor hides research focuses on intersections of art and politics and he is currently pursuing an extended study of entanglements between architecture and law research that includes his book entitled constitutional modernism architecture and civil society in Cuba 1933 to 1959 his essay about some evidence of wild criticism and publicity in architectural career of Sir John Stone published in perspective and a new project on the aesthetic debates about ugliness in Great Britain in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries which he's currently teaching a seminar on here at MIT so we very much look forward to conversation tonight between professor Barrett and professor hi and we'll welcome questions after the top so please join me in welcoming the bugs here tonight thank you very much thank you George what publication and also just won't generally catch up with us talk with us before we get going just a quick format note all it is a conversation from industry between George night I hope very much that would be a conversation or to tell them that I'm a conversation amongst all of us so that could be grabbed that full presentation Q&A segregated again try to open up your questions discussion in comments contractions sooner rather than later searchers be preparing to know that you'll have an opportunity to ask questions great soon actually I'm very pleased I did thrilled we're joining us and chances to talk with him in an informal way I know George from the middle act of the the three-part play that is to describe so from from china the graduates will design at Harvard and then of course no of the first act a settings of 60 70 s and subsequently a little bit in the third act UT the University of Toronto so by way of just appetizer I guess to get us going out I was struck by not surprisingly Charles jinxes little blurb for the back of your book and use that to discuss going to it sir charles jencks doing is a little lighter note for the back of this new volume writings on architecture in the city says if i were to summarize george barris qualities in one phrase it would be the philosophical architect and i want to ask you about that just your response to that and what it would it signifies something to end with but more to you because obviously it's a striking phrase in person that it is the direct article review falafel software architect philosophical our thing but also because we know at this point you could have expected any number of other modifiers their theoretical architect opportunity the theory proud architect because he certainly produced your share of theory actual theorization it could have sent accessing architect people are practicing who are a practitioner produced your share architectural objects and it could have included other dimensions as opposed of the philosophical philosophical Eisen architect personally or a writer which would be most common so I'm curious officially when you accept that that particular designation is the philosophical architect and what you think that signifies in making a distinction between the theoretical armatures of architecture the practical terms of architecture and what exactly is this kind of scope of philosophy that you are apparently each okay I think I can probably say something in response to that I i'm going to architecture school as an undergraduate graduate programs favorite existed back in those days but I was Restless I was intellectually restless to length but it this is long before resurgence of architectural theory the famous architects of today would call rule of pero son and I I was I was unsatisfied restless and felt is actually I was on that basis that I decided to go back to school I ended up I unwittingly men to London to do so largely because the British calm of being once it was easy to get funding other so I could have come to the States everyone was going to Dale all my fears were muddy able to send me under Rudolph foods the time but that was a I was more interested in so often when I left alone and basically my life was transformed forever because I landed him well like i said i think is probably read that in the late 60s architectural theory was on the process of being places where he's being invented for Venice button and there I was at one of the two would ever haven't had any idea that that was what I was coming too so I I was my thesis supervisor was Robert Maxwell we were leading the team at Princeton but the circle of figures in which I moved by included Joseph brickwork and Frampton Allen geroon urbana each convert was utterly about Middleton this was the kind of them all and all these people were you know friends and neighbors in London and I simply fell into it and it was an extraordinary experience so it was it was in my time in London that I discovered first French structuralism literary criticism of anthropology structural anthropology of kelowna bistros quite philosophy but fairly kinda theorized literary criticism apology and then just as Rick kort persuaded me to look at maurice merleau-ponty the other the other important figure that i discovered in one and striking and not given she's american german jewish american live in America nonetheless what is the figure aren't trying to Frank and told me that he just he's told about had a hard by so and I actually became Robert interested in philosophy and since I was in London hi it was was also impossible to avoid what philosophers call word in every language velocity which is oxbridge times I i really dislike ordinary language philosophy and personally is that it's a whole center there's a whole separate holy school philosophy to talking about philosophy which is large large this as well so and charles jencks and i had long discussions about all of this in relationship architecture we were both doctoral students together at the dartmouth school in working with your repair nominee working on maxwell and we became close friends and we are first the meaning architecture because you've already indicated movies ho is poetic tools so and those discussions continue involves you the era of post structuralism so i have to say i call myself expert i'm derry gonna listen to tere Aloha my efforts to read them I'm not of course since my interest in sin god extent structuralism which precedes and I've always thought that the post-structuralist dairy dogs and the scornful attitude too many stressors always struck against disingenuous to start it's kind of a bit juvenile and unnecessarily in my opinion and I don't have to final you as the presenter about a huge ideological chasm but any to make to come back to your question I think Charles has got all that characterization but it seems Posey wouldn't apply to him even Lou against that team history I mean at least I wouldn't well almost see it as an apt hit and I guess the reason I say that is that it wasn't something that's conveyed in it as well as a certain kind of NC temperance of thought not moderation because I don't consider you a moderate architectural thinker by any means but it's sort of temperance of thought that the Jencks doesn't have we're placing more be more quick to describe him as an architect writer or as a article theorists we be because of the kind of insistence of argumentation as opposed to an unfolding or mutation we think what I want to be referring to is in the even if you just read these 24 essays there's a kind of reasonableness of the unfolding arguments within movement back and forth between positions it comes also English initiative writing as well but it strikes me as philosophical and that it seems to move back and forth between modes of observation and modes of rescue nation so that there's a kind of appeal to rational the layers of the rational and then a movement into observation whether it's observation tangible facts reality or observational politics and political theory references external rent so it's the movement back and forth that he knows that that in the process of writing about our adventure by moving between the modes of observation and across the nation it seems to me to be a good fit to the phrasing that goes off the architect as distinct objects who seems to me to be less even-handed I probably disagree with what you just said I'm just one small cabin Charles somewhere one of the essay want to be ready Charles friends friendship has survived today and there's a este the records precise reference in which Graham talks about he parts of songs journal is filled as a Charles is from went to Harvard harder and his family had a summer place on and John still has it and he would he eat ramen Elvis in London he has he has a tradition of coming to Cape Cod for part of the summer and on more than one occasion Ram kenwood and he in this interview will has toxic and it was an episode after the period that I was together with Charles another when his first marriage broke up and he was and so who has talks about them spending holidays together on Cape Cod where he would commiserate with Charles about the end of his marriage and Charles would reciprocate by explaining French velocity to so ready Pettis is understanding the post-structuralist retransmit so so with that caveat I don't disagree with your characterization and you might not disagree without either pensions it's probably why he's calling me the philosophical argot right he could be an insult to chromium but they need to carry forward the proposition that you're thinking moves back and forth between observations and sort of brass Tunisia I think and this becomes evident me anyway in the way that you're moving through this much longer story about the evolving public sphere evolving but say publicness of architecture and here just to continue that with distinctions I think wherever I james's is offering a very kind of the cute recognitions of evolution discourse the recognition a sort of evolution of the larger surround socials around to Architecture seem less of a concern too humid it is to you and so as I as I there is a fundamental point of fundamental question I'm curious to know what the what would be that your current recognition of this inevitable publicness of architecture if you think of it as as having arrived for coming now occurred at the end of a much larger much larger art much larger art within your career in which we move from a presence of publicness of architecture as something much more definite something much more recognizes with a much more legible to our contemporary moment where where the admirable publicness architecture may still be present but where publicness itself is is perhaps less less certain and what I think interested to try to be more this is that if if I as I read the essays from the late 60s onward into the most recent ones you're moving from a setting where the public miss of architectural is occurring for example and moment and in a place where there was still public comments guaranteed by existence that welfare state by the existence of public apparatus the narrow is all be banished into a sewer privatization you were speaking at a moment where public communication took place in great distinction from private communication and very different from our contemporary moment where private communication is now manifestly color whether whether the conspiracy theory world or the conspiracy conspiratorial realities of Edward Snowden but i'm thinking more social medias a record of projection of private life into the public or even in a everything of the contracts from the late 60s where the first emergence of the actual frailty of some consolidated sense of cultural identity became apparent that is now all present moment the sheer violence of cultural differences so it seems that there if we think of the public side public sphere so that there is a strong evolution away from the characteristic publicness in which your thought there's any was formed into a very different in Chile condition where polygynous itself is in some ways down interested to hear how or the way you conceive of this inevitable publicness of architecture operating today where previously you were able to establish a boundary public private and then argue that architecture navigate across that boundary and existed at that bounder what are the issues today where that boundary itself is so much more difficult to actually identify whether we think is such media a cultural difference privatized government question bye because I was just there there are two ways in which one would you just said is not wrong but problematic emphasis and that is I would accuse you slightly romanticizing condition characterized the prior is the city interview she talked about little theory another to your two foundations books of publicness our hearts discourse and you know however haces look kind of suggested the Golden Age was that 19th century that it's an errand accursed moments when she calls the rise of the social which she sees as Brody the essential dignity publicness but that having been said in her first of the origins of totalitarianism errand that's the look at which she been extended of her rich in our group or one of her original arguments in that book is that that citizen Stalin is actually have more in common than they have different she totalitarian six and she basically argued that that coming of publicness was barely existed two years population and she was so she was she was very caught off-guard when these German workers who voted against I mentioned more come from the Hungarian students yes the governor hungary in 1936 because according to her argument of totalitarianism those such rebellions weren't supposed to be possible precluded by the totalitarian system she function to characterize so precisely and she and then of course the next thing that happens is a student activism in all the sort of activists phenomena associated with the events leading up to nineteen sixty eight well all of that exhilarating and caused her to reconsider her position and he decided that well things were maybe not great they were actually not as bad as Sheena thought they were and that action which were hers and essence of politics action had not been precluded either by the social in the Western world or by the totalitarianism in the Eastern Bloc after all even though she had thought it had done so so I intend to have a similar and I do not did to come to the second year probably proposition be tabled I mean I do not deny all those different modalities you take its social disk exists and that they do make difference i'm not about that but i might coral with the degree to which they nice again i remember this first starting with the virtual remember you know all the kind of eager beavers are the virtual explained that you know soon the reality wouldn't matter anymore because we were all going to exist in virtual reality yeah sure I mean what what turned out to be interesting was that for virtuality as a kind of amplification around the edges of what we had everybody knows reality turned out to be interesting and provocative but I don't think it fundamentally altered reality so i would take a a kind of similar position and that's not to say that there aren't changes or that there are problems because I but I don't think they'd be inclined not to see them running as deep as your commentary messages if I to know those problems that may be a more observational note the other way is not not so much the transformations of publicness both experiments qualities of those transparency but to ask about the relationship of architecture to of privates so we're in this earlier period it seemed still possible to think cogently about what an architecture of the private sphere what is whether it was to actually produce to do projects around individuals or whether it was out of the world and that the single family house designs they'll have a resonant architectural consequence or importance I was quite that's much less than K snap that it's actually are think of architecture as having some parent on the private sphere development started for this course as they move ahead is a transformative whose question I have less and less to do that without private sphere so that if your earlier thinking depended upon kind of ability of architecture is to move back and forth that the risk now or the difficulty would be that there isn't much there isn't much to be thought about private rental work I'd refer to on anything about this talk about this in terms of the Eastern European context asked whether at this earlier moment the private individuals who surprised aren't also had already a kind of concrete sense the architecture the compass having a dress to mention agents rather than collector ones but acts working on the side I guess the provocation adequately that the that architecture is now fully and that there its discourse wasn't do private Pyle individuality or singular subjectivity and accepted the student be quite this argument just look at some practice but maybe I mean there's again partly what you say we as residents for me but the way in which it has to do characterization of architecture which would fall over a kind of character characterization of architecture which means have three quarters of every night I I don't want to reduce architecture exercise tyrannical oppression of the people by an elite or something like that not I'm not arguing that kind of posture the social role of architecture but I do think I do see our detector as a social importance of praxis which includes joints and shopping malls and suburbs and employment lands and all the kind of organizational I mean for me it's all it's all architecture releases all architects are all putatively architecture at least does quite make it as architecture in a larger sense and that the project of Arctic and so and you know and also there another way maybe characterizing this is just use the phrase from Walter Benjamin which I've I've only just can't it just sort of turns up in my thinking of disconcerting frequency architecture is the prototype of a work of art which is appropriately productivity an estate of distraction which I translate out any there are there what I call fancy hi left interpretations in that statement which want to talk about evolution repression of the working class eccentric center etc but I mean I'm just taking this out I be prepared it I'm not and I'm not saying thats the relevant but I'm just referred to take the statement as meaning that most of us most of the time do not pay conscious attention to tectonic world with psoriasis or so architecture has this it starts in this rotating role of just continue in the activity and then at our relationship to it can go all the way from from that that simple kind of taking for granted which by the way Carrie construct how we in the world works all the way through to the opposite distraction which concentration of a GTR the painting that you look my art gallery and i'm not i'm not saying don't concentrate on organs and obviously architects wenger visiting other architects building is to concentrate on them carefully and drive decide what they think of them but but that's a that's not the way they've got most of the time that's a kind exceptional and try to be concentrating few hours you have nervous breakdown just kind of distress sustained so I so for me the spectrum socially politically includes pretty much the world and the spectrum in terms of consciousness goes from that which was just a greedy ticket for graduate all the way through to that which we serve on particular occasions regard with all so so and in that sense then I I agreed that the kind of that there is a version of architectural discourse which is kind of shrunken but for me it's not the best least well I think that I would want to ask at it there there there are several aspects in your thinking that actually point the way towards enlargement or reenlarge that is worth before before I asked about that I just want to say too so it's on the record and you really have to write the essay titled annually the spinsters game it's important that appear d the notion of a date or the kind of the appearance of architecture as something encountered in in the state of distraction or in stata kind of momentary recognition recognition i think is it's clearly evident several points of the way argue and think right about architecture and there are two in particular that were that were important to me in reading through the book and then offering suggestions to assume location suicide on how what SH to read to the books i want to highlight those to ask you about possibility that they point toward this kind of work mark parading recreation of certain terrain the picture is withdrawn from the children I'm taking of our first you write about the work of a child savetti included that sa a scene I don't know it seemed weak context of the larger argument and it that one because what what I thought so striking in it was the recognition of the deciphering of the drawings the drawings of cloth feels rather than actually the process themselves or the drawings of the process as actually pointing towards an organic sure that could produce a very subtle relationship between the structural formal sense structural informal sentence arrangements of urban space and the subjective longhorns and in particular its understanding the plans the revelation of section revelations of third dimension in the shadows or elements of shootings the drawings themselves are are pointing towards themselves as productions of inhabitants ways that we have it is you saying they say in a potential estate of distraction in state that carries along with it reorganization of the site but without any of the assumption that directors will have a concentrated an audience that is concentrate these clauses will not be so the the careful study there of the drawing itself with this of this is a deeply embedded element architectural practice is is something that is actually opening up there's possibility of an architecture that did not demand attention solicits engagement nevertheless the second example will be in the the essay considering questions of the agency within the contemporary city and the agent particularly of the user faced with in the arrival cities but maybe I'll par solution divided Congress has first with regard to the drawing is there what is your sense or what as you look at University of Toronto's you look at other schools that you look at contemporary practice whatever what are the modes are representation of modes of reviewing architecture through drawing video animation remodeling and so forth that may that are still capable producing the kind of nuance that you saw on the travel study drawings is this still part of a key part of our control representation to actually solicit and on it's not that is a distracted things rather than concentrating I think by the way let me let me start by saying are you hi my favor I concur with I concur with an admirer or characterization of my reading with the Machado it's okay to design so so that's for a start and but of course that you know that that pieces are kind of beer degrees down as you separate coming and of course kind of pointing that and this goes back here you know remarkable privatized world congress Lee when Tim took I taught a seminar on Teth Lori at the GSD was June attended and basically what we did was we looked at the introductions to all all we did with the courses look at the introductions to all ten for his books in front of the net were translated to evening the way to the main body of any of the books we just can map the ideological thrust of the interventions for the book devote so I and in the process of which I grew very fond of jefferies propensity to start sentences with the phrase it is no coincidence that and so now I can say it is no coincidence that neither the shadow in somebody's public space designs got implemented because the public world didn't materialize so which is that what you're arguing one discussion back is history but as for the modes of representation now well first of all students come to rob it's not just issue while I think one of our disabilities best introduction innovations in particular architecture program cheers dude so certainly we introduce and dry not because he was expecting people to draw presentation bronzer trash and stuff like that but only that sketchy is a type of praxis and you can I don't think you could say for some digital methodological excavations you can't so I knew i shouldn't've historical and then I guess and then of course the computer is such a tool especially truster representation that it seeks I find the most interesting students the most interesting approaches the representation of our students always have to be with them choose to do without prior doing all the during the manners and monitoring the color one option certain kind of analysis style ization so as to because the option was sort of fruit salad like collage representation reality LMK is just appropriately positive source is so easy she's too strong an image which manifested authenticity so I think there's an issue has I mean is the best i can offer off the top of my head is going to be something destroyed so paradoxian that restraint would actually be that's going to road it by flood the same part of the depression of the operation of deal with with agency and nasa agency you're pointing to the edge of the facts of your iversity its relationship or extend it into depression to the urban law it seems fair that the there there is the recognition demonstration of the agency of individual subjects private subjects whether in the informal sentence of the rival city or the more formalized chaotic still structure to you so that is you also to be a location in which you'd be able to address this philosophy relevant private but I'm I'm not entirely sure how that would happen in the sense that if this is an agency that is being well do you see this as an agency that is in fact lying somewhat outside of on the periphery of architecture professional a architecture discursively in the sense of these are not clients or these are not these are not settings that are demanding some of the is eliciting architecture is this is this an architect this is an area from which scenario private life private development of private action from which architectures being excluded because of the depression informal or through the swamp limitations property ownership structures to or is this a kind of is are you thinking or beginning to identify a certain kind of agencies or kind of action that architecture establish a new relationship some new conversation well maybe some of each let me guess I would have two things to say love that not hottie in the same way that I think that everything is in architecture but everything put the architecture origin take the whole protect territory the fabricated world as available to us which to first understand second work and I think the informal settlements are are an instructive lesson for architects and how I we created circumstances of fairly cranky exigency so that so at least as architecture itself and then if you go to Tokyo it might be worth my Sangha Japan interpretation I our views land urban irony in Tokyo is extraordinarily widely distribute on a large very very large number of fairies calls it describes the city of houses and an astonishing amount of territory his houses houses are lots of astonishment and he sees that it's a federal whole history about land tenure now Japanese families prefer to subdivide and capacitor children because anything that before they die because they are those texts are reduced so there's a whole set of circumstances in Japanese law society that can produce this proliferation of small parcels language of illness I would have a relatively small build system builder and sometimes there's this phenomenon that briefly ESA is a 10 15 stories which is on the palatable Wesson so they're extraordinarily small buildings but what is what this means is that it's again as you saw landowners and it's a kind of sort of mini developer system may better you know don't have to be most corporation in order to build one they're ordinary person could do it but a personal modest things are Charlie could do it because it's a it's a feasible so this produces a very interesting social I think I think actually so it can manifest agencies on the prana part of the light meant building is her own Shack together and of course one of the one of the things that Saunders comes out of a pilgrim are Doug Saunders by the way is a very important right here he's not known in the States because it's a journalist academic but he spoke on our diversity is I mean I that it's the most important for God informal settlements or at least the politics of informal settlements that I know he he actually thinks that these settlements are subbing a little in trying from our time of all their difficulties but the people who are doing are at a better situation than they were before they country and they are there because they knew better and there the full think about an enterprise as I said in many cities of the world that are the larger portion of the actual urban fabric of the summit of this purpose in itself so so they they have this incredibly important role and if you kind of rich from the person building the corrugated metal enclosure for themselves through to the Japanese family building the pendant story small apartment building the urc agency play now at what point architecture kicks in in that process I mean I agree that's a question and it's certainly all happening throughout but I mean but bad well it seems to me you most most of our house design prevention is houses and I actually well for a series of historical reasons they're actually trying to reinvent projectors have sharper japanese test is always good they tended to burn down dropping of a cannibal and then of course the world the damage japanese cities sustained or not just rushing and Nagasaki but all the other rooms in japanese series for farm fireball so we so Japan at the end of the central works and tabula rasa whichever knees and the challenge they had two are such so I I sort of see the architecture sort of appearing sometimes it appears sometimes it doesn't appear that kind of a reading of social political circumstances but I see it as a very pregnant fertile territory possible once you flip girls are willing to define the to allow agency to appear at different moments within our encounter architecture in two ways in different stages of a process of information being so that you're not assuming that our picture has to be the prior factor that actually between or engage difference of initiating action maybe actual maybe maybe architectural maybe which doctors prefer you know as savings realized but nevertheless they did produce some private subjectivity in red as you demonstrate so in that case maybe in other cases would be deferred i do want to bring rest of your audience intelligence a fun morning about Japan I happy to do that but I thought we would like to open it up to the audience I just say one more thing about Japan now as I gave an earlier version of this more amplified talk about Japan cooter last week and was an interesting question in the audience about the fact that the perdition doesn't have any corridors and there's a kindly there's a mr. goes back to the question of privacy and by the way one of our objectives is to bring strangers back and eventually segment that's because they the Japanese contemporary Japanese service has become too much of a kind of sealed container that has no relation to pay for example raptorial dead out on those methods for house designs which are sort of totally eat the ground and that and so we so it so if you've seen them wanting to bring strangers back in the magazine you understand that the historical ours didn't have any port or failing that actually kind of qualifies what was what was understood privacy in world in the first place and it actually took the first that I was sitting in and all of a sudden I thought of Robin Emmons famous essay figures Doris passages in which he explained out it's only in the late 17th century in Britain that the quarter comes to existing anglo-saxon architecture because up until then the rooms were awfully loud just like Paris I and you had everyone had to go through every room to get of an excellent so the corridor is kinds of by bad circulation technique is a kind of operational invention of the original period so anyways I and name is everything victim and so baby but soul a bow things such other current Japanese have ceased to private and and I and then have occurred to me the highest suicide rates in the world this is there consequential you're talking so he just solicit the question is why I think that that phrasing just underline of bringing strangers back down the house that's very that's very intriguing kind of our glorious me because it's not Benny this the opposition with the public private public and so on while it remains a distinction rather than trying to understand what architecture seems to achieve as a kind of smoothing as a kind of bringing the private out into the public and actually is able to maintain our producing idea that it's in some ways more conflicted that rather than the harbor bossy and communicative reason is in the space of consensus where you as private individuals move through architecture out into a greedy public that this is more intrusive process a stranger in the house and not that that needs to be a hostile process we would look back into law architecture particularly more expansive geographical survey look at this long tradition of receiving visit or receiving the stranger the house not the mountains it's all out the true be an interesting perhaps be calibrating for me the role of our picture a private would no longer be to protect the private architecture well I still think it has no relevance for private it could buy actually meaning architecture of the stranger rebuild the subject but in case if there are comments and questions from the floor the toxic materials damage but you have your say like I'm interested in learning here is what your thoughts are water supply design well but well one of our dimension which is that it doesn't need to be a material palette can be modest I don't know if you've we invited Rahul amar otra to give a public lecture at Prada a twice f has DNA because i had started public lectures in the school as a junior faculty member 1970s there's now a George fired lecture and annual lecture selected as long as I'm still alive I get to choose who who's the George Parrott lecturer for the cup cup for the given year so I asked Rahul what if he would come and do it and he I don't know if he was seen his project for two brunches he showed in that presentation one was a compound of houses for the guy sold you another my knowledge of India I've never been to India so my knowledge is very weak but there's a there's a city in India which has a citadel I have on a hill oh there's up Mitchell procession ocean itself to this place which is actually a new feature and it's kind of big tourist attractions so and so there's a compound where the man the guys that look after the elephants that and they each of them has an elephant so they have these they have these dwelling units where there's one a very large bedroom and as impersonal under the elephant all right and it's pizza it's a remarkable remarkable project absolutely how very impressed and then he also showed a project where they were doing on public washrooms and at located at intervals within an informal settlement because one of the things they don't have this time associates toilets and showers and of course are all kinds of complications about and gender distinctions of the use of the Russians so but one of the things was the e2 look he deliberately built the bed of a material palette that was not much different from what the settlement was built out of anyway not because he couldn't have something different but because he thought that the things were more likely to be socially integrated they're going to become because people are used to using them and so there was an issue of the reorganization process for the purpose of facilitating the kind of adopt a material palette which did not look all that different from in terms that material selected from the bill so a couple of examples good mention their nightly I suppose see the other really powerful thing coding part I'm not sure this is a lesson for architects to be honest you're surfing lesson plans and that is that the way english study but buildings growing ferment to character typically grow a friendly so it starts with a shack that the shack gets gets actual masonry walls and i still have a corrugated metal roof but it is you know masonry balls and then assuming the family is actually making social economic it really which is often most of the case of all they is not a concert we require a second floor and then you know if you look at it kind of informal settlement you will find that the people have even become the people have plots have become landlords all right so they have played out maybe they have been louth in part of the building and they might find it so they actually leaned up her party good so so the time of the implication for headed the evolution of urban form oh and that'll / separates the whole question of security King that's it so it's a high probably my question comes from a more personal place but as a practitioner in architectural practice ER and someone who's also interested in very the intellectual project what do you think being an architect brings to the other side of the coin and what do you think we know like in it's actually too interested in theory brings to the architecture of your own practice I guess like what is the method i know some say you have to choose one side of the coin or the other and how do you feel like piña practicing aspect bring something to the table directly answering your question but the first generation people who got interested in architectural theory like me from the late sixties were also practicing architect then structuralism preceded by post-structuralism the second generation of people interesting theory or mostly just academics that weren't practitioners and then the third generation a lot of iridium architect weren't even trained as architects I mean Michael speaks and as you know who are the two this is embarrassing but we're going to worry one-nothing cuff sorry Jennifer Jennifer boo hiss hiss hiss hiss and then what someone's another one people who aren't architects at all so so there was a period during the time I was on the faculty to Jersey were burning so many got very prompt about architectural theory because as far as he could see it didn't have much to do with architecture anymore so and so so so I think the kind of the Maybelline back to practice acts as a kind of gravity which keeps the theoretical speculation become completely new recipe so that's the practitioner son s for the other I guess the intellectual side with prudence is just no one would know me what you're actually knowing what you're doing and not would actually knowing why we're doing it that's what I think I think ideological demystification is so interesting because I'm just you know we won't have this happening so you suddenly have an embarrassing moment when you realize oh my gosh I used to pick eggs and all of a sudden something has happened that it's revealed to me choosing first of all this are feeling me why it is that I thought that and secondly that it was wrong to think that it was actually wrong and so you have a little epiphany all right where you suddenly understand something about yourself in the world that you didn't previously do and you hanging need intellectual veracity of summation just as good and wet follow up and your answer and ask about the blaster in the hair writing of history relationship to be reading the practice but more specifically the form of writing history and the contrast between sa historical tribution in historical moment in SA the historic professional historical monograph it seems to be their current currency versus then the longer more synthetic history that I I always think that as having accompanied this initiative or a moment of theories i'm thinking of brickwork swimming to do littleton also these books that are that are dealing with several centuries of architectural thought and attempting to synthesize or precipitate out some legible arcs and legible one place on pre-indictment place to successfully place but those seem not only out of oak but difficult to write the key well they might be too easy to write that they no longer seem to say what they would need to say and in their place we have characters from monographs need to recognize and address or classes although those two seem to be disappearing are taking more of a local practitioner back to this that's deeply historical that is fillable depends on the essay form or common road and since you've done both essays as we've seen but also the monograph of work the space of appearance and underscoring what your thoughts are on this kind of the influence of these different forms of historical writing you see me for creation of were they they've been rightfully absolutely massive asking a question I don't know the answer to nope my friend Francesca rot allows written and introduction to these essays which is part of the book and even he speculates that the essay is I don't think I don't think this is a highly theorized he's expressing I think it's just that this is observational but it is his impression that the primary vehicle of theoretical discourse on architectural events that sexually as the kissing and the ending he cannot the evenings also the essay written by an architecture with an intellectual but not necessary characterizes me but he would he would include in that people like like as well as people who also had that similar profile and food and he's probably true that certainly that they are best known for their estimates I small personal complaint I mean I took too long to write the space of the parents and it came out of the worst possible time because it came out that backs of a day of deconstruction rich food and architectural practices with which one book has nothing to do so I mean it was battalion was my own fault but it basically means that book which is the heart of the most work of anything I read about in terms of publishing in a ricotta with you we've got a half a dozen reviews and all the reviews of Gothel favorable but I think Roger Conant it sure was the best seller so I and if I think it's the things I've written would have had more effect in Boston I'm over it was the essay that would be me certainly if the timing of the space of appearance was dead long timing me and architecture was banging on so just everybody was looking for this book but they didn't go ungentle over here so it was very well received and then some of my essays also have and its discontents so so I certainly had more influence on the basis of my essays but whether this is a structural phenomenon I don't and you you see a either space for or do you miss the other form of the Adams house in paradise Crysis 2 times x perfekt sort of synthetic mystery not you personally but turn ugly we need those since we're speaking to an audience of patients better they could choose to write expand this kind of work as well I'm well it's an interesting question about whatever the reason I'm a skating as I was kind of thing what was its the most recent book of that time I read was really Steve I mean that I thought check changed my view of the world and I mean I have read some books recently that affect architecture climate change world transformation stomach is the best explanation utilitarian so maybe this long sustained argument architecture I mean if I had to find something broken spring so my level in the air but going forward that baited me to come yeah we probably 10 15 1 mr. B's they're arguing whether it is one more thing i would like to say especially curious enough to come we might well be curious I have to look more closely and i think i would say that is always do instrumental one of my irritations post-structuralism is just the prose style strikes me as so user unfriendly imagine bus that's I really tried to I don't think you should have to a member of the general public who is intellectually curious has no more special expertise so I think so cute I would serve the urban it seems like very much a naturalized to the public dimensional weather passes

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