Elements of a Novel



welcome to flipped classroom today's lesson is on the novel with a focus on the book the road the structure of the novel is very similar to the structure of a short story it begins with the exposition that's where the characters setting and basic situation is introduced then there's rising action where the reader will be introduced to the conflict that's the struggle between the two opposing forces and this will drive the action of the story at the peak of the story it's the climax and that's where the action and the conflict come to a peak followed by the denouement that's the falling action which leads to the resolution which is the outcome of the conflict there's various elements of a novel the big three our plot setting and character plot includes the elements in the story which include all the stages of conflict plot basically answers the question what happened the setting is the location the time the mood the environment it answers the question where did it happen another part of the big three trio is characters that can be people animals landscape anyone or anything involved in the conflict so that answers a question who or what did it happen to other elephants phenomena include the theme that connects together all the elements of the story it's the pattern of the motif which provides insight into the deeper meaning of the story there's also the point of view and that's perspective from which the action of the novel is presented as well as the tone that's the perspective of the characters it helps the readers grasp the author's feeling towards a particular subject in the story tone can be anywhere from solemn to grave to critical even witty rye or humorous there are various types of characters in a novel they can be static which means they do not change throughout the work and the readers knowledge of that character really doesn't grow it stays static and then there's dynamic characters that's characters that undergo some kind of change because of the action in the plot if you look at Lion King his example scar is pretty static he doesn't change throughout Lion King but Simba does as he grows and matures and gains knowledge there are other types of characters such as flat characters and those embody one or two qualities ideas or traits that can be readily described in a brief summary they're not psychologically complex characters and therefore they're readily accessible to the readers these can be also stock characters sometimes stereotypical the dumb-blonde the mean stepfather rather than individuals round characters are more complex they often display the inconsistencies in internal conflicts found in real people they're more fully developed therefore they are harder to summarize some roles of characters include the hero often is called which is referred to as the protagonist who's the central character and really engages the readers interest or even empathy the antagonist is the character for sir collection of forces that stands directly opposed to the protagonist and gives rise to the conflict of the story often the antagonist is referred to as the bad guy other functions of characters include the first-person narrator that can either be a major or a minor character a foil is a character who through contrast underscores the distinctive characteristics of another usually a minor character who serves as a foil to the major character so if you're going back to the play Romeo and Juliet and Juliet's the main character the protagonist her foil would be Roslyn the perfect girl who doesn't cause any problems for Romeo a confidante is a character who is not integral to the action but who receives most intimate thoughts of the protagonist it also could be a sidekick so for thinking of Shrek the confidant would be donkey there's various types of points of view Amna set third is a third-person narrator it sees into each character's mind it understands all the actions going on there's limited on the scent this is a third-person narrator who generally reports on what one character sees and reports the thought of that one privileged character third-person objective that's when a narrator reports what would be visible to the camera does not actually know what the character is thinking unless the character speaks of it himself first person is characters that tell the tale from his or her point of view they often can be unreliable stream-of-consciousness is a first-person narration but instead of the character telling the story the author places the reader inside the main character's mind characterization is a process by which a writer reveals the personality of a character there's direct characterization and that's telling that's when the author intervenes to scribe and sometimes evaluate the character for the reader indirect characterization is showing that's when the author presents a character talking and acting and letting the reader infer what kind of person the character is the author will do this for the character's appearance voice may be revealing private thoughts and even effects on other individuals conflict is a key element of novels as well it's the struggle within the plot between opposing forces and it's the issue to be resolved in the story the protagonists usually engages in the conflict with antagonists which may take the form of a character society nature or even an aspect of the protagonists personality an external conflict is a struggle against some outside force maybe another character maybe society is whole or some natural force internal conflict is a conflict between forces or emotions within the character style is the writers distinctive manner of arranging words to suit his or her ideas and purpose of writing it's the unique imprint of the author's personality upon his or her writing there's various elements of style such as syntax and that's how a sentence is structured it's variety and arrangement of the word orders may be using parallelism or phrasing or specific punctuation and repetition diction is the word choice with its denotation and connotation as well as concrete and abstract details tone as the writers or the speaker's attitude towards the subject it prides the emotional coloring of meaning of a work figurative language could include metaphors and similes hyperbole understatement personification paradox and illusion imagery is the sights and sounds they're often repeated or contrasted such as light versus dark apathy versus energy organization is the structure or the form which can utilize contrasts or similarities can be classified as either formal organization informal logical or even chaotic also another element of style is the use of time there's flashback and flash-forward or even a frame story within the narration that is chronological realistic synchronized or a synchronized magical even circular so there are very types of elements that can be found in a novel the theme is the central meaning or the dominant idea in a literary work it provides a unifying point around which the plot the characters the setting the point of view symbols and all the other elements of the novel are organized but it is important not to mistake the theme with the actual topic of the work a theme expresses an opinion about an abstract concept such as freedom or jealousy guilt unrequited love or self-pity a theme should be written in a complex sentence and here's an example Karthi is about survival and reveals that people can be monsters when faced with other monsters this is just a basic introduction to the novel so apply what you learned today when reading the road thank you for joining me today in flipped classroom

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